Delirium Bibliography

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

You may base your search on as many search terms as you like. A search term can be a keyword, an author's name, all or part of an article's title, or any word or phrase that you might expect to find in an article's abstract. You may then indicate whether you would like to limit the search to one or more options.

The results are prioritized so that entries including all search terms will be listed first, but you can indicate whether to then sort by title (the default), by author, by journal name or by publication year.

You may further restrict to a topic category. Note: If you do not enter any search terms, the results will include all of the entries for the selected topic category.

More information about each entry on this page is available by moving the mouse over the green information symbols.

Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 2145

  • Delirium: a guide for the general physician. 2017 Todd OM, Teale EA. Clinical medicine (London, England), 17:1 (48-53)
    • Title

      Delirium: a guide for the general physician.

    • Authors
      Todd OM, Teale EA
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      Clinical medicine (London, England)
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium describes a sudden onset change in mental status of fluctuating course. This is a state of altered consciousness characterised chiefly by inattention or lack of arousal, but can also include new impairment of language, perception and behaviour. Certain predisposing factors can make an individual more susceptible to delirium in the face of a stressor. Stressors include direct insults to the brain, insults peripheral to the brain or external changes in the environment of an individual. Delirium is varied in its presentation, and can be categorised by the psychomotor profile as: hyperactive type (overly vigilant, agitated, often wandersome), hypoactive type (sedate or withdrawn) or mixed types.
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirium in critically ill patients. 2017 Slooter AJ, Van De Leur RR, Zaal IJ. Handbook of clinical neurology, (449-466)
    • Title

      Delirium in critically ill patients.

    • Authors
      Slooter AJ, Van De Leur RR, Zaal IJ
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      Handbook of clinical neurology
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and neuronal network alterations. Delirium develops mostly in vulnerable patients (e.g., elderly and cognitively impaired) in the throes of a critical illness. Delirium is by definition due to an underlying condition and can be identified at ICU admission using prediction models. Treatment of delirium can be improved with frequent monitoring, as early detection and subsequent treatment of the underlying condition can improve outcome. Cautious use or avoidance of benzodiazepines may reduce the likelihood of developing delirium. Nonpharmacologic strategies with early mobilization, reducing causes for sleep deprivation, and reorientation measures may be effective in the prevention of delirium. Antipsychotics are effective in treating hallucinations and agitation, but do not reduce the duration of delirium. Combined pain, agitation, and delirium protocols seem to improve the outcome of critically ill patients and may reduce delirium incidence.
    • PubMed ID
  • New or Worsening Symptoms and Signs in Community-Dwelling Persons with Dementia: Incidence and Relation to Use of Acute Medical Services. 2017 Sloane PD, Schifeling CH, Beeber AS, Ward KT, Reed D, Gwyther LP, Matchar B, Zimmerman S. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 65:4 (808-814)
    • Title

      New or Worsening Symptoms and Signs in Community-Dwelling Persons with Dementia: Incidence and Relation to Use of Acute Medical Services.

    • Authors
      Sloane PD, Schifeling CH, Beeber AS, Ward KT, Reed D, Gwyther LP, Matchar B, Zimmerman S
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To understand the range of symptoms that present to family caregivers of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD).
    • PubMed ID
  • Nursing care for people with delirium superimposed on dementia. 2017 Pryor C, Clarke A. Nursing older people, 29:3 (18-21)
    • Title

      Nursing care for people with delirium superimposed on dementia.

    • Authors
      Pryor C, Clarke A
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      Nursing older people
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Nursing and healthcare is changing in response to an ageing population. There is a renewed need for holistic nursing to provide clinically competent, appropriate and timely care for patients who may present with inextricably linked mental and physical health requirements. This article explores the dichotomy in healthcare provision for 'physical' and 'mental' health, and the unique role nurses have when caring for people with delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). Delirium is prevalent in older people and recognised as 'acute brain failure'. As an acute change in cognition, it presents a unique challenge when occurring in a person with dementia and poses a significant risk of mortality. In this article, dementia is contrasted with delirium and subtypes of delirium presentation are discussed. Nurses can recognise DSD through history gathering, implementation of appropriate care and effective communication with families and the multidisciplinary team. A simple mnemonic called PINCH ME (Pain, INfection, Constipation, deHydration, Medication, Environment) can help identify potential underlying causes of DSD and considerations for care planning. The mnemonic can easily be adapted to different clinical settings and a fictitious scenario is presented to show its application in practice.
    • PubMed ID
  • Functional connectivity and network analysis during hypoactive delirium and recovery from anesthesia. 2017 Numan T, Slooter AJ, van der Kooi AW, Hoekman AM, Suyker WJ, Stam CJ, van Dellen E. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 128:6 (914-924)
    • Title

      Functional connectivity and network analysis during hypoactive delirium and recovery from anesthesia.

    • Authors
      Numan T, Slooter AJ, van der Kooi AW, Hoekman AM, Suyker WJ, Stam CJ, van Dellen E
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To gain insight in the underlying mechanism of reduced levels of consciousness due to hypoactive delirium versus recovery from anesthesia, we studied functional connectivity and network topology using electroencephalography (EEG).
    • PubMed ID
  • Can a 10-Minute Questionnaire Identify Significant Psychological Issues in Patients With Temporomandibular Joint Disease? 2017 Lin SL, Wu SL, Huang HT, Lung FW, Chi TC, Yang JW. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons,
    • Title

      Can a 10-Minute Questionnaire Identify Significant Psychological Issues in Patients With Temporomandibular Joint Disease?

    • Authors
      Lin SL, Wu SL, Huang HT, Lung FW, Chi TC, Yang JW
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
    • URL
    • Abstract
      For patients with disc displacement disorders (DDDs), psychiatric illness increases the risk of worsening postsurgical pain, postoperative delirium, postoperative incomplete recovery, and worse postoperative life quality. This study provides a fast and practical protocol to evaluate psychological conditions of patients with DDDs of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in clinical care.
    • PubMed ID
  • The incidence of delirium after cardiac surgery in the elderly: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017 Liao Y, Flaherty JH, Yue J, Wang Y, Deng C, Chen L. BMJ open, 7:3 (e014726)
    • Title

      The incidence of delirium after cardiac surgery in the elderly: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    • Authors
      Liao Y, Flaherty JH, Yue J, Wang Y, Deng C, Chen L
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      BMJ open
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium is one of the most common complications after cardiac surgery in the elderly. Future studies aimed at preventing postoperative delirium will need an accurate estimate of incidence. However, there are no available systematic reviews on the incidence, and reports of incidence of postoperative delirium after a cardiac operation vary widely with significant heterogeneity. Therefore, we aim to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the most accurate incidence possible of postoperative delirium in individuals aged >65 years after cardiac surgery.
    • PubMed ID
  • Polypharmacy and Delirium in Critically Ill Older Adults: Recognition and Prevention. 2017 Garpestad E, Devlin JW. Clinics in geriatric medicine, 33:2 (189-203)
    • Title

      Polypharmacy and Delirium in Critically Ill Older Adults: Recognition and Prevention.

    • Authors
      Garpestad E, Devlin JW
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      Clinics in geriatric medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Among older adults, polypharmacy is a sequelae of admission to the intensive care unit and is associated with increased medication-associated adverse events, drug interactions, and health care costs. Delirium is prevalent in critically ill geriatric patients and medications remain an underappreciated modifiable risk for delirium in this setting. This article reviews the literature on polypharmacy and delirium, with a focus on highlighting the relationships between polypharmacy and delirium in critically ill, older adults. Discussed are clinician strategies on how to recognize and reduce medication-associated delirium and recommendations that help prevent polypharmacy when interventions to reduce the burden of delirium in this vulnerable population are being formulated.
    • PubMed ID
  • Feasibility of melatonin for prevention of delirium in critically ill patients: a protocol for a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. 2017 Burry L, Scales D, Williamson D, Foster J, Mehta S, Guenette M, Fan E, Detsky M, Azad A, Bernard F, Rose L. BMJ open, 7:3 (e015420)
    • Title

      Feasibility of melatonin for prevention of delirium in critically ill patients: a protocol for a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    • Authors
      Burry L, Scales D, Williamson D, Foster J, Mehta S, Guenette M, Fan E, Detsky M, Azad A, Bernard F, Rose L
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      BMJ open
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium is highly prevalent in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. At this time, there is no drug that effectively prevents delirium in critically ill patients. Alterations in melatonin secretion and metabolism may contribute to the development of delirium. Administration of exogenous melatonin has been shown to prevent delirium in non-critically ill surgical and medical patients. This trial will demonstrate the feasibility of a planned multicentre, randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that melatonin can prevent delirium in critically ill patients compared with placebo.
    • PubMed ID
  • Association between delirium superimposed on dementia and mortality in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study. 2017 Avelino-Silva TJ, Campora F, Curiati JA, Jacob-Filho W. PLoS medicine, 14:3 (e1002264)
    • Title

      Association between delirium superimposed on dementia and mortality in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study.

    • Authors
      Avelino-Silva TJ, Campora F, Curiati JA, Jacob-Filho W
    • Year
      2017
    • Journal
      PLoS medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Hospitalized older adults with preexisting dementia have increased risk of having delirium, but little is known regarding the effect of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) on the outcomes of these patients. Our aim was to investigate the association between DSD and hospital mortality and 12-mo mortality in hospitalized older adults.
    • PubMed ID
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