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The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)

The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was originally developed in 1988-1990, to improve the identification and recognition of delirium. CAM was intended to provide a new standardized method to enable non-psychiatrically trained clinicians to identify delirium quickly and accurately in both clinical and research settings.

Since its development, the Confusion Assessment Method has become the most widely used instrument for detection of delirium world-wide, because of both its strong validation results as well as its ease of use. The CAM instrument has been used in over 250 original articles to date, as either a process or outcome measure, and has been translated into over six languages world-wide.

Before you open or download the CAM documentation, you must agree to the terms set forth in the CAM Disclaimer shown below. By checking the box at the end of the Disclaimer, you signal that you agree to its terms, and this will make the CAM documentation link available.

CAM Disclaimer

The Confusion Assessment Method is intended to assist with identifying the symptoms of confusion or delirium and is intended to be used as instructed. An accurate diagnosis for delirium, confusion, or other psychiatric disorders can only be made by a qualified healthcare provider or physician after a clinical evaluation. These materials are not intended to address the many situations that may arise in dealing with delirium, and persons must exercise their independent judgment about such clinical situations. The Hospital Elder Life Program, LLC., Dr. Sharon K. Inouye, MD or Hebrew SeniorLife shall have no liability for claims by, or damages of any kind whatsoever to, a user of this content or any other person for a decision or action taken in reliance on the information contained on this web site. Such damages include, without limitation, direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages. YOU EXPRESSLY AGREE THAT THE HOSPITAL ELDER LIFE PROGRAM, LLC., SHARON INOUYE, M.D. AND HEBREW SENIORLIFE ARE NOT LIABLE FOR ANY INJURY, PHYSICAL OR FINANCIAL, RELATED TO THE CONTENT OR YOUR RELIANCE ON THE CONTENT. YOUR USE OF THESE MATERIALS CONSTITUTES YOUR AGREEMENT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THIS DISCLAIMER.

Please note that the CAM is copyright protected, therefore you must acknowledge the copyright when you replicate the tool for clinical use or within any research or publication. The copyright acknowledgement below should be clearly visible on any copies of the CAM or the CAM training manual. If you need to publish or reproduce the CAM for a paper, book chapter or article, you must obtain copyright clearance from our office. In order to do so, please contact our office by e-mail at The CAM cannot be replicated for commercial purposes without the explicit permission by the author, Sharon Inouye MD, MPH. To make this request please contact the office at the aforementioned e-mail address.

Adapted from: Inouye SK, vanDyck CH, Alessi CA, Balkin S, Siegal AP, Horwitz RI. Clarifying confusion: The Confusion Assessment Method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990; 113: 941-948. Confusion Assessment Method: Training Manual and Coding Guide, Copyright © 2003, Hospital Elder Life Program, LLC.

We would appreciate that any adaptations or translations be sent to us at: for posting on our website. Include information on translation or validation procedures (e.g., translation and back-translation) and how you would like to be acknowledged. All adaptations and translations are covered under the original copyright, and are subject to the same conditions.

I have read and agree to the terms of the CAM disclaimer.

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