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Confusion Assessment Method

The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was originally developed in 1988-1990, to improve the identification and recognition of delirium. CAM was intended to provide a new standardized method to enable non-psychiatrically trained clinicians to identify delirium quickly and accurately in both clinical and research settings.

Since its development, the Confusion Assessment Method has become the most widely used instrument for detection of delirium world-wide, because of both its strong validation results as well as its ease of use. The CAM instrument has been used in over 250 original articles to date, as either a process or outcome measure, and has been translated into over six languages world-wide.


Please note that the CAM is copyright protected, therefore you must acknowledge the copyright when you replicate the tool for clinical use or within any research or publication. However, if you need to publish or reproduce the CAM for a paper, book chapter or article, you must obtain copyright clearance from our office. In order to do so, please contact our office by e-mail at The CAM cannot be replicated for commercial purposes without the explicit permission by the author, Sharon Inouye MD, MPH. To make this request please contact the office at the aforementioned e-mail address.


"Adapted from:  Inouye SK, vanDyck CH, Alessi CA, Balkin S, Siegal AP,
Horwitz RI.  Clarifying confusion: The Confusion Assessment Method.  A new
method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990; 113: 941-948.
Confusion Assessment Method: Training Manual and Coding Guide, Copyright
2003, Sharon K. Inouye, M.D., MPH."

The Confusion Assessment Method Training Manual will instruct clinicians on the administration and coding of the CAM. New administrators of the CAM should review the manual and follow the recommended procedure for administering the CAM prior to using it in clinical practice. To download the training manual, click on the link below.

CAM Training Manual