Delirium Bibliography

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

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Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 2941

  • Cognitive impairment and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review. 2019 Viramontes, O. Luan Erfe, B. M. Erfe, J. M. Brovman, E. Y. Boehme, J. Bader, A. M. Urman, R. D.. J Clin Anesth, (65-76)
    • Title

      Cognitive impairment and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review.

    • Authors
      Viramontes, O. Luan Erfe, B. M. Erfe, J. M. Brovman, E. Y. Boehme, J. Bader, A. M. Urman, R. D.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      J Clin Anesth
    • URL
    • Abstract
      STUDY OBJECTIVE: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common surgical procedure in the elderly. Varying degrees of cognitive impairment (CI) are frequently seen in this patient population. To date, there has been no systematic review of the literature specifically examining the impact of CI on outcomes after elective THA. The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies that compare the postoperative outcomes of patients with and without CI after undergoing elective primary THA. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review of prospective and retrospective studies. A systematic literature review was conducted by searching MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase from between January 1, 1997 and January 1, 2018. A total of 234 articles were reviewed and 22 studies were selected. SETTING: Operating room and short-term and long-term postoperative recovery up to 2years. PATIENTS: Patients with CI who underwent an elective primary THA that required general anesthesia with a comparator group of patients who did not have dementia. INTERVENTIONS: Patients who underwent elective primary total hip arthroplasty. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes included post-operative delirium (POD), mortality and other complications, discharge disposition, length of stay (LOS), mortality, short-term (30days) and long-term (1month-2years) complications. MAIN RESULTS: 22 studies with 5,705,302 participants were included in the systematic review. Sample sizes varied greatly, ranging from 14 to 2,924,995 participants. There was an association between patients with CI and an increase in POD, in-hospital mortality, complications during hospitalization, non-routine disposition, LOS, mortality between 1month to 2years, and worse postoperative functional status. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that there are strong associations between patients with pre-existing CI undergoing THA and increased POD, hospital mortality, hospital complications, and hospital LOS. We report good quality evidence linking complications after THA to preexisting CI. Screening for CI can improve care and better predict the risk of developing postoperative complications such as delirium. Further investigations can address perioperative factors that can help reduce complications and show the utility of more widespread assessment of preoperative cognitive impairment.
    • PubMed ID
  • Autonomic cardiovascular control in older patients with acute infection and delirium: a pilot study of orthostatic stress responses. 2019 Neerland, B. E. Wyller, T. B. Wyller, V. B. B.. BMC Geriatr, 19:1 (23)
    • Title

      Autonomic cardiovascular control in older patients with acute infection and delirium: a pilot study of orthostatic stress responses.

    • Authors
      Neerland, B. E. Wyller, T. B. Wyller, V. B. B.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      BMC Geriatr
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity might be involved in the pathophysiology of delirium. The aim was to explore autonomic cardiovascular control in older patients with and without delirium. METHODS: Fourteen patients (five with delirium) acutely admitted to the geriatric ward with an infection were enrolled in the study. Patients with atrial fibrillation, a pacemaker, or on treatment with beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were not eligible. Continuous, non-invasive hemodynamic variables were measured during supine rest (5 min) and head-up tilt (HUT) to 15 degrees (10 min). Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and stroke volume (SV) were recorded beat-to-beat. Cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and heart rate variability (HRV) values were calculated. RESULTS: Median age was 86 years. HR, BP, SV, CO, TPR and EDV were similar across the two groups at rest, but there was a trend towards a greater increase in systolic BP and HR during HUT in the delirium group. At rest, all HRV indices were higher in the delirium group, but the differences were not statistically significant. During HUT, the delirium group had higher power spectral density (PSD) (representing total variability) (p = 0.06) and a lower low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF)-ratio (an index of sympathovagal balance) than the control group (p = 0.06). Also, delirious patients had a significantly greater reduction in standard deviation of RR-intervals (SDNN) (representing total variability) from baseline than controls (p = 0.01) during HUT. CONCLUSIONS: This explorative pilot study on autonomic cardiovascular control in delirium suggests that there may be differences in HRV that should be further investigated in larger samples.
    • PubMed ID
  • The prognostic value of neurofilament levels in patients with sepsis-associated encephalopathy - A prospective, pilot observational study. 2019 Ehler, J. Petzold, A. Wittstock, M. Kolbaske, S. Gloger, M. Henschel, J. Heslegrave, A. Zetterberg, H. Lunn, M. P. Rommer, P. S. Grossmann, A. Sharshar, T. Richter, G. Noldge-Schomburg, G. Sauer, M.. PLoS One, 14:1
    • Title

      The prognostic value of neurofilament levels in patients with sepsis-associated encephalopathy - A prospective, pilot observational study.

    • Authors
      Ehler, J. Petzold, A. Wittstock, M. Kolbaske, S. Gloger, M. Henschel, J. Heslegrave, A. Zetterberg, H. Lunn, M. P. Rommer, P. S. Grossmann, A. Sharshar, T. Richter, G. Noldge-Schomburg, G. Sauer, M.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      PLoS One
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) contributes to mortality and neurocognitive impairment of sepsis patients. Neurofilament (Nf) light (NfL) and heavy (NfH) chain levels as biomarkers for neuroaxonal injury were not evaluated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of patients with sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) before. We conducted a prospective, pilot observational study including 20 patients with septic shock and five patients without sepsis serving as controls. The assessment of SAE comprised a neuropsychiatric examination, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and delirium screening methods including the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and the intensive care delirium screening checklist (ICDSC). CSF Nf measurements in sepsis patients and longitudinal plasma Nf measurements in all participants were performed on days 1, 3 and 7 after study inclusion. Plasma NfL levels increased in sepsis patients over time (p = 0.0063) and remained stable in patients without sepsis. Plasma NfL values were significantly higher in patients with SAE (p = 0.011), significantly correlated with the severity of SAE represented by ICDSC values (R = 0.534, p = 0.022) and correlated with a poorer functional outcome after 100 days (R = -0.535, p = 0.0003). High levels of CSF Nf were measured in SAE patients. CSF NfL levels were higher in non-survivors (p = 0.012) compared with survivors and correlated with days until death (R = -0.932, p<0.0001) and functional outcome after 100 days (R = -0.749, p<0.0001). The present study showed for the first time that Nf levels provide complementary prognostic information in SAE patients indicating a higher chance of death and poorer functional/cognitive outcome in survivors.
    • PubMed ID
  • A systematic review of interventions to facilitate extubation in patients difficult-to-wean due to delirium, agitation, or anxiety and a meta-analysis of the effect of dexmedetomidine. 2019 Dupuis, S. Brindamour, D. Karzon, S. Frenette, A. J. Charbonney, E. Perreault, M. M. Bellemare, P. Burry, L. Williamson, D. R.. Can J Anaesth,
    • Title

      A systematic review of interventions to facilitate extubation in patients difficult-to-wean due to delirium, agitation, or anxiety and a meta-analysis of the effect of dexmedetomidine.

    • Authors
      Dupuis, S. Brindamour, D. Karzon, S. Frenette, A. J. Charbonney, E. Perreault, M. M. Bellemare, P. Burry, L. Williamson, D. R.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Can J Anaesth
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Delirium, agitation, and anxiety may hinder weaning from mechanical ventilation and lead to increased morbidity and healthcare costs. The most appropriate clinical approach to weaning in these contexts remains unclear and challenging to clinicians. The objective of this systematic review was to identify effective and safe interventions to wean patients that are difficult-to-wean from mechanical ventilation due to delirium, agitation, or anxiety. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Studies evaluating mechanically ventilated patients deemed difficult-to-wean due to delirium, agitation, or anxiety, and comparing the effects of an intervention with a comparator arm were sought. Time-to-extubation was the primary outcome while the secondary outcome was intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay. RESULTS: From 10,860 studies identified, eight met the inclusion criteria: six studies assessed dexmedetomidine while the remaining two assessed loxapine and biofeedback. Pooled analysis of studies assessing dexmedetomidine showed reduced time-to-extubation (six studies, n = 303) by 10.9 hr compared with controls (95% confidence interval [CI], -15.7 to -6.1; I(2) = 68%) and ICU length of stay (four studies, n = 191) by 2.6 days (95% CI, 1.9 to 3.3; I(2) = 0%). Nevertheless, the evidence was deemed to be of low quality given the small sample sizes and high heterogeneity. Studies assessing other interventions did not identify improvements compared with controls. Safety assessment was globally poorly reported. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis provides low quality evidence to suggest the use of dexmedetomidine in patients deemed difficult-to-wean due to agitation, delirium, or anxiety. Insufficient evidence was found regarding other interventions to provide any recommendation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42016042528); registered 15 July, 2016.
    • PubMed ID
  • Haloperidol for the management of delirium in adult intensive care unit patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 2019 Zayed, Y. Barbarawi, M. Kheiri, B. Banifadel, M. Haykal, T. Chahine, A. Rashdan, L. Aburahma, A. Bachuwa, G. Seedahmed, E.. J Crit Care, (280-6)
    • Title

      Haloperidol for the management of delirium in adult intensive care unit patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    • Authors
      Zayed, Y. Barbarawi, M. Kheiri, B. Banifadel, M. Haykal, T. Chahine, A. Rashdan, L. Aburahma, A. Bachuwa, G. Seedahmed, E.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      J Crit Care
    • URL
    • Abstract
      PURPOSE: Delirium commonly presents as a complication in critically ill patients. Our aim is to perform a meta-analysis investigating the role of haloperidol versus placebo in management (treatment and prophylaxis), of delirium in intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing haloperidol versus placebo for treatment and/or prophylaxis of ICU-related delirium. RESULTS: Six RCTs representing 2552 patients. There was no significant difference between haloperidol and placebo-treated patients in short-term all-cause mortality (risk ratio [RR] 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-1.14; P=0.67), incidence of delirium (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65-1.34; P=0.70), ICU length of stay (Mean difference [MD] 0.00days; 95% CI -0.82-0.83; P=0.99), or delirium/coma-free days (MD 0.09; 95% CI -0.05-0.24; P =0.21). Haloperidol was not associated with increased risk for serious adverse events (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.23-1.88; P=0.43), QTc prolongation (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.63-1.19; P=0.38), or extrapyramidal symptoms (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.57-1.23; P=0.37). CONCLUSION: Among critically ill patients, haloperidol administration compared with placebo does not significantly affect short-term mortality, incidence of delirium, ICU length of stay, or delirium or coma-free days. Additionally, there was no increased risk of adverse events.
    • PubMed ID
  • Genome-wide association study of myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, acute stroke, acute kidney injury and delirium after cardiac surgery - a sub-analysis of the RIPHeart-Study. 2019 Westphal, S. Stoppe, C. Gruenewald, M. Bein, B. Renner, J. Cremer, J. Coburn, M. Schaelte, G. Boening, A. Niemann, B. Kletzin, F. Roesner, J. Strouhal, U. Reyher, C. Laufenberg-Feldmann, R. Ferner, M. Brandes, I. F. Bauer, M. Kortgen, A. Stehr, S. N. Witt. BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 19:1 (26)
    • Title

      Genome-wide association study of myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, acute stroke, acute kidney injury and delirium after cardiac surgery - a sub-analysis of the RIPHeart-Study.

    • Authors
      Westphal, S. Stoppe, C. Gruenewald, M. Bein, B. Renner, J. Cremer, J. Coburn, M. Schaelte, G. Boening, A. Niemann, B. Kletzin, F. Roesner, J. Strouhal, U. Reyher, C. Laufenberg-Feldmann, R. Ferner, M. Brandes, I. F. Bauer, M. Kortgen, A. Stehr, S. N. Witt
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      BMC Cardiovasc Disord
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was the identification of genetic variants associated with postoperative complications after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized trial (RIPHeart). We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1170 patients of both genders (871 males, 299 females) from the RIPHeart-Study cohort. Patients undergoing non-emergent cardiac surgery were included. Primary endpoint comprises a binary composite complication rate covering atrial fibrillation, delirium, non-fatal myocardial infarction, acute renal failure and/or any new stroke until hospital discharge with a maximum of fourteen days after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 547,644 genotyped markers were available for analysis. Following quality control and adjustment for clinical covariate, one SNP reached genome-wide significance (PHLPP2, rs78064607, p = 3.77 x 10(- 8)) and 139 (adjusted for all other outcomes) SNPs showed promising association with p < 1 x 10(- 5) from the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several potential loci, in particular PHLPP2, BBS9, RyR2, DUSP4 and HSPA8, associated with new-onset of atrial fibrillation, delirium, myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury and stroke after cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01067703, prospectively registered on 11 Feb 2010.
    • PubMed ID
  • Preoperative Anxiety as a Predictor of Delirium in Cancer Patients: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study. 2019 Wada, S. Inoguchi, H. Sadahiro, R. Matsuoka, Y. J. Uchitomi, Y. Sato, T. Shimada, K. Yoshimoto, S. Daiko, H. Shimizu, K.. World J Surg, 43:1 (134-142)
    • Title

      Preoperative Anxiety as a Predictor of Delirium in Cancer Patients: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    • Authors
      Wada, S. Inoguchi, H. Sadahiro, R. Matsuoka, Y. J. Uchitomi, Y. Sato, T. Shimada, K. Yoshimoto, S. Daiko, H. Shimizu, K.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      World J Surg
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is a common and important complication in cancer patients. We need to identify patients at high risk of postoperative delirium such that it can be prevented preoperatively or in early postoperative phase. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative anxiety predicted onset of postoperative delirium in cancer patients, not only in order to identify high-risk groups but also to help develop new preventive approaches. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study of cancer patients undergoing tumor resections. Postoperative delirium was assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Preoperative anxiety was evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A), and we defined HADS-A > 7 as clinical anxiety. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to determine which factors were predictors of delirium. RESULTS: The final analysis included 91 patients, 29 of whom met the criteria for postoperative delirium. In multivariable logistic regression, age (5-year increments; odds ratio (OR) = 1.565, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.057-2.317, p = 0.025) and HADS-A > 7 (OR = 4.370, 95% CI = 1.051-18.178, p = 0.043) predicted delirium onset. These variables explained 74.2% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative anxiety strongly predicted postoperative delirium in cancer patients. Our findings suggest that preoperative anxiety may be a new target for prevention of postoperative delirium. Trial registration number This study was registered at UMIN000018980.
    • PubMed ID
  • Development of a Dynamic Multi-Protein Signature of Postoperative Delirium. 2019 Vasunilashorn, S. M. Ngo, L. H. Chan, N. Y. Zhou, W. Dillon, S. T. Otu, H. H. Inouye, S. K. Wyrobnik, I. Kuchel, G. A. McElhaney, J. E. Xie, Z. Alsop, D. C. Jones, R. N. Libermann, T. A. Marcantonio, E. R.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 74:2 (261-8)
    • Title

      Development of a Dynamic Multi-Protein Signature of Postoperative Delirium.

    • Authors
      Vasunilashorn, S. M. Ngo, L. H. Chan, N. Y. Zhou, W. Dillon, S. T. Otu, H. H. Inouye, S. K. Wyrobnik, I. Kuchel, G. A. McElhaney, J. E. Xie, Z. Alsop, D. C. Jones, R. N. Libermann, T. A. Marcantonio, E. R.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Background: Delirium is common, morbid, and costly, yet its biology is poorly understood. We aimed to develop a multi-protein signature of delirium by identifying proteins associated with delirium from unbiased proteomics and combining them with delirium biomarkers identified in our prior work (interleukin [IL]-6 and IL-2). Methods: We used the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) Study of adults age >/=70 undergoing major noncardiac surgery (N = 560; 24% delirium). Plasma was collected preoperatively (PREOP) and on postoperative day 2 (POD2). In a nested matched case-control study involving 12 pairs of delirium cases and no-delirium controls, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry proteomics was applied to identify the top set of delirium-related proteins. With these proteins, we then conducted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmation, and if confirmed, ELISA validation in 75 matched pairs. Multi-marker conditional logistic regression was used to select the "best" PREOP and POD2 models for delirium. Results: We identified three proteins from iTRAQ: C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein (AZGP1), and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (SERPINA3). The "best" multi-protein models of delirium included: PREOP: CRP and AZGP1 (Bayesian information criteria [BIC]: 93.82, c-statistic: 0.77); and POD2: IL-6, IL-2, and CRP (BIC: 87.11, c-statistic: 0.84). Conclusion: The signature of postoperative delirium is dynamic, with some proteins important before surgery (risk markers) and others at the time of delirium (disease markers). Our dynamic, multi-protein signature for delirium improves our understanding of delirium pathophysiology and may identify patients at-risk of this devastating disorder that threatens independence of older adults.
    • PubMed ID
  • Improved Guideline Adherence and Reduced Brain Dysfunction After a Multicenter Multifaceted Implementation of ICU Delirium Guidelines in 3,930 Patients. 2019 Trogrlic, Z. van der Jagt, M. Lingsma, H. Gommers, D. Ponssen, H. H. Schoonderbeek, J. F. J. Schreiner, F. Verbrugge, S. J. Duran, S. Bakker, J. Ista, E.. Crit Care Med,
    • Title

      Improved Guideline Adherence and Reduced Brain Dysfunction After a Multicenter Multifaceted Implementation of ICU Delirium Guidelines in 3,930 Patients.

    • Authors
      Trogrlic, Z. van der Jagt, M. Lingsma, H. Gommers, D. Ponssen, H. H. Schoonderbeek, J. F. J. Schreiner, F. Verbrugge, S. J. Duran, S. Bakker, J. Ista, E.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Crit Care Med
    • URL
    • Abstract
      OBJECTIVES: Implementation of delirium guidelines at ICUs is suboptimal. The aim was to evaluate the impact of a tailored multifaceted implementation program of ICU delirium guidelines on processes of care and clinical outcomes and draw lessons regarding guideline implementation. DESIGN: A prospective multicenter, pre-post, intervention study. SETTING: ICUs in one university hospital and five community hospitals. PATIENTS: Consecutive medical and surgical critically ill patients were enrolled between April 1, 2012, and February 1, 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Multifaceted, three-phase (baseline, delirium screening, and guideline) implementation program of delirium guidelines in adult ICUs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was adherence changes to delirium guidelines recommendations, based on the Pain, Agitation and Delirium guidelines. Secondary outcomes were brain dysfunction (delirium or coma), length of ICU stay, and hospital mortality. A total of 3,930 patients were included. Improvements after the implementation pertained to delirium screening (from 35% to 96%; p < 0.001), use of benzodiazepines for continuous sedation (from 36% to 17%; p < 0.001), light sedation of ventilated patients (from 55% to 61%; p < 0.001), physiotherapy (from 21% to 48%; p < 0.001), and early mobilization (from 10% to 19%; p < 0.001). Brain dysfunction improved: the mean delirium duration decreased from 5.6 to 3.3 days (-2.2 d; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.3; p < 0.001), and coma days decreased from 14% to 9% (risk ratio, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.6; p < 0.001). Other clinical outcome measures, such as length of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital mortality, did not change. CONCLUSIONS: This large pre-post implementation study of delirium-oriented measures based on the 2013 Pain, Agitation, and Delirium guidelines showed improved health professionals' adherence to delirium guidelines and reduced brain dysfunction. Our findings provide empirical support for the differential efficacy of the guideline bundle elements in a real-life setting and provide lessons for optimization of guideline implementation programs.
    • PubMed ID
  • Trajectory of severity of postoperative delirium symptoms and its prospective association with cognitive function in patients with gastric cancer: results from a prospective observational study. 2019 Shim, E. J. Noh, H. L. Lee, K. M. Hwang, H. Son, K. L. Jung, D. Kim, W. H. Kong, S. H. Suh, Y. S. Lee, H. J. Yang, H. K. Hahm, B. J.. Support Care Cancer,
    • Title

      Trajectory of severity of postoperative delirium symptoms and its prospective association with cognitive function in patients with gastric cancer: results from a prospective observational study.

    • Authors
      Shim, E. J. Noh, H. L. Lee, K. M. Hwang, H. Son, K. L. Jung, D. Kim, W. H. Kong, S. H. Suh, Y. S. Lee, H. J. Yang, H. K. Hahm, B. J.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Support Care Cancer
    • URL
    • Abstract
      PURPOSE: Delirium is a common neurocognitive complication in cancer. Despite this, the studies examining the trajectory of the severity of delirium symptoms and its impact on health outcome in gastric cancer is rather limited. This study examined the trajectory of delirium symptom severity (DSS) following resection surgery for gastric cancer and its prospective association with cognitive function. METHODS: A three-wave prospective observational study was conducted with 242 gastric cancer patients admitted for resection surgery at a teaching hospital in South Korea from May 2016 to November 2017. DSS was assessed by the clinical staff before and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after surgery using the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98. A survey including the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Scale (FACT-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered before surgery (T0), 7 days after (T1), and 3 to 6 months after surgery (T2). RESULTS: Out of 242 participants, 48.8% (118) completed the survey at all three time points, 43.4% (105) did so for two time points, and 7.9% (19) for one time point. No cases of full delirium were observed over four postoperative time points. Latent growth curve modeling analyses indicated that DSS declined over 3 days after surgery. Age and anesthesia time were positively associated with the initial level of DSS. A medication history for memory complaints was related to a slower recovery from delirium symptoms. While the use of propofol as an anesthetic agent was associated with lower initial DSS, it predicted a slower recovery from DSS. A higher initial DSS predicted a lower T1 MMSE score. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of postoperative delirium symptoms predicts a short-term and objective cognitive function post-surgery. Monitoring and timely treatment of postoperative delirium symptoms is needed to diminish cognitive consequences in gastric cancer patients.
    • PubMed ID
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