Delirium Bibliography

**The Delirium Bibliography is moving!**

 

We're excited to announce that the Delirium Bibliography has been moved to the Network for Investigation of Delirium: Unifying Scientists (NIDUS) website! The new bibliography includes well over 3,000 references on delirium and acute care for elders in addition to new references on pediatric delirium, as well. Articles in the new bibliography are still indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases, and they can be easily browsed with a search function. Questions? Email margaretwebb@hsl.harvard.edu

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

You may base your search on as many search terms as you like. A search term can be a keyword, an author's name, all or part of an article's title, or any word or phrase that you might expect to find in an article's abstract. You may then indicate whether you would like to limit the search to one or more options.

The results are prioritized so that entries including all search terms will be listed first, but you can indicate whether to then sort by title (the default), by author, by journal name or by publication year.

You may further restrict to a topic category. Note: If you do not enter any search terms, the results will include all of the entries for the selected topic category.

More information about each entry on this page is available by moving the mouse over the green information symbols.

Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 3263

  • Randomized Controlled Trial of Enhanced Recovery Program Dedicated to Elderly Patients after Colorectal Surgery. 2019 Ostermann, S. Morel, P. Chalé, J. J. Bucher, P. Konrad, B. Meier, R. P. H. Ris, F. Schiffer, E. R. C.. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 62:9 (1105-1116)
    • Title

      Randomized Controlled Trial of Enhanced Recovery Program Dedicated to Elderly Patients after Colorectal Surgery.

    • Authors
      Ostermann, S. Morel, P. Chalé, J. J. Bucher, P. Konrad, B. Meier, R. P. H. Ris, F. Schiffer, E. R. C.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery program is a multimodal, multidisciplinary-Team, evidence-based care approach to reduce perioperative surgical stress, decrease morbidity and hospital stay, and improve recovery after surgery. This program may be most beneficial for elderly (≥70 y), but sparse series have investigated this question. OBJECTIVE: Feasibility and efficiency of a dedicated enhanced recovery program in the elderly as compared with standard care were studied. DESIGN: This was a nonblinded, randomized controlled study. SETTINGS: This study was conducted in a single high-volume university hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 150 eligible elderly patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery were included. INTERVENTIONS: Enhanced recovery after colorectal elective surgery in elderly patients was studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative morbidity. Additional outcomes included hospital stay, readmission, postoperative pain, opioid consumption, independence preservation, and protocol compliance. RESULTS: An enhanced recovery program reduces postoperative morbidity according to Clavien-Dindo classification by 47% as compared with standard care (35% vs 65%; p = 0.0003), total number of complications (54 vs 118; p = 0.0003), and infectious complications (13 vs 29; p = 0.001). No anastomotic leak was recorded in the enhanced recovery group versus 5 for the standard group (p = 0.01). The enhanced recovery program resulted in shorter hospital stay (7 vs 12 d; p = 0.003) and better independence preservation (home discharge, 87% vs 67%; p = 0.005). A high protocol compliance of 77.2% could be achieved in this population. According to multivariate analysis, enhanced recovery program was strongly associated with reduced morbidity (OR = 0.23 (95% CI, 0.09-0.57); p = 0.001), less severe complications (OR = 0.36 (95% CI, 0.15-0.84); p = 0.02), and shorter hospital stay (OR = 2.07 (95% CI, 1.33-3.22); p = 0.001). LIMITATIONS: Limitations were a single-center recruitment and the impossibility of subject or healthcare professional blinding attributed to the nature of this multimodal program. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced recovery program is safe and improves postoperative recovery in elderly patients with decreased morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and better maintenance of independence. It should therefore be considered as a standard of care for elective colorectal surgery in elderly patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A981.
    • PubMed ID
  • The effect of ketamine on emergence agitation in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019 Ng, K. T. Sarode, D. Lai, Y. S. Teoh, W. Y. Wang, C. Y.. Paediatr Anaesth, 29:12 (1163-1172)
    • Title

      The effect of ketamine on emergence agitation in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    • Authors
      Ng, K. T. Sarode, D. Lai, Y. S. Teoh, W. Y. Wang, C. Y.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Paediatr Anaesth
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Ketamine is believed to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or procedure. However, recent randomized controlled trials reported conflicting findings. AIMS: To investigate the effect of ketamine on emergence agitation in children. METHODS: Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were systematically searched from their start date until February 2019. Randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous ketamine and placebo in children were sought. The primary outcome was the incidence of emergence agitation. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain score, duration of discharge time, and the adverse effects associated with the use of ketamine, namely postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm. RESULTS: Thirteen studies (1125 patients) were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. The incidence of emergence agitation was 14.7% in the ketamine group and 33.3% in the placebo group. Children receiving ketamine had a lower incidence of emergence agitation, with an odds ratio being 0.23 (95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 0.46), certainty of evidence: low. In comparison with the placebo, ketamine group achieved a lower postoperative pain score (odds ratio: -2.42, 95% confidence interval: -4.23 to -0.62, certainty of evidence: very low) and lower pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale at 5 minutes after operation (odds ratio: -3.99, 95% confidence interval: -5.03 to -2.95; certainty of evidence: moderate). However, no evidence was observed in terms of incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm. CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials, high degree of heterogeneity and low certainty of evidence limit the recommendations of ketamine for the prevention of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or imaging procedures. However, the use of ketamine is well-tolerated without any notable adverse effects across all the included trials. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42019131865.
    • PubMed ID
  • BIS index monitoring and perioperative neurocognitive disorders in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019 Miao, M. Xu, Y. Sun, M. Chang, E. Cong, X. Zhang, J.. Aging Clin Exp Res,
    • Title

      BIS index monitoring and perioperative neurocognitive disorders in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    • Authors
      Miao, M. Xu, Y. Sun, M. Chang, E. Cong, X. Zhang, J.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Aging Clin Exp Res
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) are common in elderly patients after surgery. It has been reported that BIS-guided anesthesia potentially influenced the occurrence of PND. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the associations between bispectral index (BIS) monitoring and PND. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) using keywords related to the BIS and PND from inception to April 22, 2019. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI were calculated using a random effects model. RESULTS: Nine RCTs involving 4023 participants aged 60 years or older were included into this meta-analysis. BIS-guided anesthesia was not associated with lower incidence of POD (random effects; OR: 0.69; 95% CI 0.48, 1.01), delayed neurocognitive recovery (DNR) at 1 day, 7 days (random effects; OR: 0.14; 95% CI 0.02, 1.23; random effects; OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.57, 1.63), and postoperative neurocognitive disorder (NCD) at 90 days and 1 year after surgery in older adults (random effects; OR:0.72; 95% CI 0.52, 1.00; random effects; OR: 0.26; 95% CI 0.03, 2.47). CONCLUSIONS: No definite evidence demonstrated that BIS-guided anesthesia decreased the incidence of POD, DNR and postoperative NCD in older patients. More homogeneous RCTs assessing the efficacy of BIS monitoring on reducing the occurrence of these perioperative cognitive disorders are needed.
    • PubMed ID
  • Plasma biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, and brain injury as predictors of delirium duration in older hospitalized patients. 2019 McNeil, J. B. Hughes, C. G. Girard, T. Ware, L. B. Ely, E. W. Chandrasekhar, R. Han, J. H.. PLoS One, 14:12
    • Title

      Plasma biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, and brain injury as predictors of delirium duration in older hospitalized patients.

    • Authors
      McNeil, J. B. Hughes, C. G. Girard, T. Ware, L. B. Ely, E. W. Chandrasekhar, R. Han, J. H.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      PLoS One
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Delirium's pathophysiology is poorly understood. We sought to determine if plasma biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, endothelial activation, and blood brain barrier (BBB) injury were associated with emergency department (ED) delirium duration. METHODS: We enrolled hospitalized patients who were 65 years or older from the ED. Plasma biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I [sTNFRI]), coagulation (Protein C), endothelial activation (plasminogen activating inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), and BBB injury (S100B) at were measured using blood obtained at enrollment. The dependent variable was ED delirium duration which was determined by the Brief Confusion Assessment Method assessed in the ED and hospitalization. Proportional odds logistic regression analyses were performed adjusted for relevant confounders and allowing for interaction by baseline dementia status. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were enrolled. IL-6 (POR = 1.59, 95%CI: 1.09-2.32) and PAI-1 (POR = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.48 to 6.85) were independently associated with more prominent ED delirium duration in subjects without dementia only. No significant associations between IL-8, Protein C, sTNRFI, and S100B and ED delirium duration were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma Biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial activation are associated with ED delirium duration in older ED patients without dementia.
    • PubMed ID
  • Randomized controlled trial of acupuncture to prevent emergence delirium in children undergoing myringotomy tube placement. 2019 Martin, C. S. Yanez, N. D. Treggiari, M. M. Piper, L. Cusick, J. Lalwani, K.. Minerva Anestesiol,
    • Title

      Randomized controlled trial of acupuncture to prevent emergence delirium in children undergoing myringotomy tube placement.

    • Authors
      Martin, C. S. Yanez, N. D. Treggiari, M. M. Piper, L. Cusick, J. Lalwani, K.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Minerva Anestesiol
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Myringotomy tube placement is a pediatric procedure frequently performed under inhalational anesthesia without intravenous line placement. Emergence delirium is common following sevoflurane anesthesia, and can lead to patient harm and escalation of nursing care. Our goal was to determine if intraoperative acupuncture, compared to standard of care, reduces emergence delirium in children undergoing myringotomy tube placement. METHODS: Single center, randomized, controlled trial at a university hospital, including children ages 1-6 years with ASA physical status 1-3 scheduled for myringotomy tube placement. Participants were stratified based on midazolam premedication and randomized to intraoperative acupuncture (AC, n=49) or standard anesthesia care (SC, n=50). Acupuncture needles were placed in bilateral Heart 7 (HT7) and ear Shen Men points after anesthesia induction. A blinded observer in the PACU assessed emergence delirium using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale. Endpoints were highest PAED score in the recovery room and post-discharge agitation and sleep quality. RESULTS: Patient baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups. With midazolam premedication, the highest PAED score was 11.6 in patients receiving AC and 12.0 for SC. Without midazolam premedication, the highest PAED was 11.8 in patients receiving AC and 10.7 for SC. The overall PAED score difference between AC and SC groups was 0.33 (95%CI - 1.5, 2.2, p=0.723). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative acupuncture at HT7 and ear Shen Men did not reduce PAED scores after myringotomy tube placement. Based on these data, it is therefore unlikely that alarger study of the same design would demonstrate a significant effect of intraoperative acupuncture on emergence delirium after brief sevoflurane anesthesia. However, other acupuncture points or techniques could be considered.
    • PubMed ID
  • Detecting delirium in patients with acute stroke: a systematic review of test accuracy. 2019 Mansutti, I. Saiani, L. Palese, A.. BMC Neurol, 19:1 (310)
    • Title

      Detecting delirium in patients with acute stroke: a systematic review of test accuracy.

    • Authors
      Mansutti, I. Saiani, L. Palese, A.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      BMC Neurol
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Patients with acute stroke are particularly vulnerable to delirium episodes. Although delirium detection is important, no evidence-based recommendations have been established to date on how these patients should be routinely screened for delirium or which tool should be used for this purpose in this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify delirium screening tools for patients with acute stroke and to summarise their accuracy. METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a systematic search of Medline, CINAHL and Scopus databases was performed to include: (a) diagnostic test accuracy studies; (b) evaluating tools detecting delirium among patients with acute stroke; (c) written in English; (d) published up to September 2018. The included studies were assessed in their quality by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. RESULTS: A total of four studies have been performed to date in the field with a variable quality for the methodology used and documentation of the accuracy of mainly two tools, as (1) the 4-Assessment Test for delirium (4AT), reporting a range of sensitivity from 90.2 to 100% and a specificity from 64.5 to 86%; and (2) the Confusion Assessment Method-Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) showing a sensitivity of 76% (95% Confidence of Interval [CI] 55-91) and a specificity of 98% (95%CI 93-100). Other tools have been studied as: The Abbreviated Mental Test-10, the Abbreviated Mental Test short form, the Clock Drawing Test, the Cognitive Examination derived from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the Glasgow Coma Scale. Moreover, the use of a single question-namely, 'Does this patient have cognitive issues?' as answered by the multidisciplinary team-has been subjected to a validation process. CONCLUSIONS: To date a few primary studies have been published to test the accuracy of tools in their ability to detect post-stroke delirium; among those available, the 4AT and the CAM-ICU tools have been mostly studied. Research has just started to add evidence to the challenge of detecting and usefully assessing newly-acquired delirium among stroke patients: therefore, more studies are needed to improve the knowledge and allow a robust selection of the most useful tool to use in this population.
    • PubMed ID
  • Associations of 4AT with mobility, length of stay and mortality in hospital and discharge destination among patients admitted with hip fractures. 2019 Lisk, R. Yeong, K. Enwere, P. Jenkinson, J. Robin, J. Irvin-Sellers, M. Fluck, D. Osmani, A. Sharmin, R. Sharma, P. Fry, C. H. Han, T. S.. Age Ageing,
    • Title

      Associations of 4AT with mobility, length of stay and mortality in hospital and discharge destination among patients admitted with hip fractures.

    • Authors
      Lisk, R. Yeong, K. Enwere, P. Jenkinson, J. Robin, J. Irvin-Sellers, M. Fluck, D. Osmani, A. Sharmin, R. Sharma, P. Fry, C. H. Han, T. S.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Age Ageing
    • URL
    • Abstract
      BACKGROUND: the 4AT (Alertness, Abbreviated Mental Test-4, Attention and Acute change or fluctuating course), a tool to screen cognitive impairment and delirium, has recently been recommended by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. We examined its ability to predict health outcomes among patients admitted with hip fractures to a single hospital between January 2018 and June 2019. METHODS: the 4AT was performed within 1 day after hip surgery. A 4AT score of 0 means unlikely delirium or severe cognitive impairment (reference group); a score of 1-3 suggests possible chronic cognitive impairment, without excluding possibility of delirium; a score >/= 4 suggests delirium with or without chronic cognitive impairment. Logistic regression, adjusted for: age; sex; nutritional status; co-morbidities; polypharmacy; and anticholinergic burden, used the 4AT to predict mobility, length of stay (LOS), mortality and discharge destination, compared with the reference group. RESULTS: from 537 (392 women, 145 men: mean = 83.7 +/- standard deviation [SD] = 8.8 years) consecutive patients, 522 completed the 4AT; 132 (25%) had prolonged LOS (>2 weeks) and 36 (6.8%) died in hospital. Risk of failure to mobilise within 1 day of surgery was increased with a 4AT score >/= 4 (OR = 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-4.3). Prolonged LOS was increased with 4AT scores of 1-3 (OR = 2.4, 95%CI = 1.4-4.1) or >/=4 (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.9-6.7). In-patient mortality was increased with a 4AT score >/= 4 (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.2-8.2) but not with a 4AT score of 1-3. Change of residence on discharge was increased with a 4AT score >/= 4 (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.4-6.8). These associations persisted after excluding patients with dementia. 4AT score = 1-3 and >/= 4 associated with increased LOS by 3 and 6 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: for older adults with hip fracture, the 4AT independently predicts immobility, prolonged LOS, death in hospital and change in residence on discharge.
    • PubMed ID
  • Effectiveness of an advanced practice nurse-led delirium education and training programme. 2019 Lieow, J. L. M. Chen, F. S. M. Song, G. Tang, P. S. Kowitlawakul, Y. Mukhopadhyay, A.. Int Nurs Rev, 66:4 (506-513)
    • Title

      Effectiveness of an advanced practice nurse-led delirium education and training programme.

    • Authors
      Lieow, J. L. M. Chen, F. S. M. Song, G. Tang, P. S. Kowitlawakul, Y. Mukhopadhyay, A.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Int Nurs Rev
    • URL
    • Abstract
      AIM: To develop an education and training programme to enhance bedside nurses' knowledge, competency and compliance in accurately performing delirium screening in intensive care units. BACKGROUND: Delirium in intensive care units is associated with several poor patient outcomes. Delirium detection can be improved by enhancing nurses' knowledge, competency and compliance in accurately performing delirium screening. METHODS: A descriptive quantitative study with pretest-post-test design was adopted. There were 245 nurses from five intensive care units who participated in the study. Multiple-choice questions were used to assess nurses' knowledge change before and after the education programme. Competency was assessed before and 2 months after the programme by simulation with a standardized patient, followed by real patients at the bedside. Compliance data on screening were collected from the documentation of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU before and 3 and 10 months after the programme. Data collection took 1 year, from June 2014 to May 2015. RESULTS: Despite nurses' improved knowledge and good competency, delirium screening documentations after 3 months were poor. However, screening documentations subsequently improved when measured at 10 months, following further emphasis by the senior nursing staff. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE AND POLICY: Nursing administrators and bedside nurses need to be involved in the policy-making process and plan a training programme for the new nursing staff in the high-risk areas. A short refreshment course should be offered to the nursing staff 3 months after the initial training programme. CONCLUSIONS: Improved knowledge and competency in assessment did not improve compliance and documentation of delirium screening. Therefore, it is important to reinforce nurses' compliance of delirium screening over time.
    • PubMed ID
  • Comparison of emergence agitation between succinylcholine and rocuronium-sugammadex in adults following closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture: A prospective randomized controlled trial. 2019 Lee, S. J. Sung, T. Y. Cho, C. K.. BMC Anesthesiology, 19:1
    • Title

      Comparison of emergence agitation between succinylcholine and rocuronium-sugammadex in adults following closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

    • Authors
      Lee, S. J. Sung, T. Y. Cho, C. K.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      BMC Anesthesiology
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Background: Sugammadex allows rapid recovery from rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Succinylcholine is often used for brief surgeries but is associated with myalgia, headache, histamine release, and increased lactate levels. Thus, we hypothesized that succinylcholine may affect emergence agitation (EA) and compared the effects of succinylcholine and rocuronium-sugammadex on EA in patients undergoing closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture under general anesthesia. Methods: Forty-two patients were prospectively enrolled and allocated randomly to the succinylcholine group (group SC) or the rocuronium-sugammadex group (group RS; each n = 21). Neuromuscular block and its reversal were achieved with succinylcholine and normal saline in group SC, whereas rocuronium and sugammadex were administered in group RS. After surgery, the incidence of EA as a primary outcome, the incidence of dangerous EA, and duration of EA as secondary outcomes were compared. Results: The incidence of EA was higher in group SC than in group RS (90.5% vs. 47.6%, respectively; relative risk [RR] 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 15.7; P =.006). The incidence of dangerous EA increased in group SC compared to group RS (33.3% vs. 4.8%, respectively; RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.4; P =.045). The duration of agitation was longer in group SC than in group RS [106.5 (65.1) vs. 40.4 (26.0) sec; mean difference 66.1 s; 95% CI 31.0 to 101.1; effect size 1.3; P =.001). Conclusion: Succinylcholine increases the incidence, severity, and duration of EA compared to rocuronium-sugammadex in patients undergoing closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture. Trial registration: CRiS Registration number KCT0002673. Initial registration date was 31 January 2018 (Retrospectively registered).
    • PubMed ID
  • Risk factors for post-intensive care syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019 Lee, M. Kang, J. Jeong, Y. J.. Aust Crit Care,
    • Title

      Risk factors for post-intensive care syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    • Authors
      Lee, M. Kang, J. Jeong, Y. J.
    • Year
      2019
    • Journal
      Aust Crit Care
    • URL
    • Abstract
      OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for each area of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) and to determine their effect size. REVIEW METHOD USED: This study used systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched. REVIEW METHODS: Eighty-nine studies were selected for the review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The PICS areas and risk factors reported in the individual studies were reviewed and categorised. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to evaluate the quality of studies. The effect size of each risk factor was calculated as odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: There were 33 mental health studies, 15 cognitive impairment studies, 32 physical impairment studies, eight studies on two areas, and one study on all three areas. Sixty risk factors were identified, including 33 personal and 27 intensive care unit (ICU)-related factors. Significant risk factors for mental health included female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-10.17), previous mental health problems (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 2.08-42.90), and negative ICU experience (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 2.04-3.28). The only significant risk factor for cognitive impairment was delirium (OR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.10-7.38). Significant risk factors for physical impairment included older age (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.11-4.33), female sex (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.32-2.91), and high disease severity (OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.76-3.66). CONCLUSIONS: Although PICS is a multidimensional concept, each area has been studied separately. Significant risk factors for PICS included older age, female sex, previous mental health problems, disease severity, negative ICU experience, and delirium. To prevent PICS, the multidisciplinary team should pay attention to modifiable risk factors such as delirium and patients' ICU experience.
    • PubMed ID
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