Delirium Bibliography

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

You may base your search on as many search terms as you like. A search term can be a keyword, an author's name, all or part of an article's title, or any word or phrase that you might expect to find in an article's abstract. You may then indicate whether you would like to limit the search to one or more options.

The results are prioritized so that entries including all search terms will be listed first, but you can indicate whether to then sort by title (the default), by author, by journal name or by publication year.

You may further restrict to a topic category. Note: If you do not enter any search terms, the results will include all of the entries for the selected topic category.

More information about each entry on this page is available by moving the mouse over the green information symbols.

Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 3010

  • Risk for acute confusion in sensory-impaired, rural, long-term-care elders. 2003 Cacchione PZ, Culp K, Dyck MJ, Laing J. Clinical nursing research, 12:4 (340-55)
    • Title

      Risk for acute confusion in sensory-impaired, rural, long-term-care elders.

    • Authors
      Cacchione PZ, Culp K, Dyck MJ, Laing J
    • Year
      2003
    • Journal
      Clinical nursing research
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Acute confusion is a common geriatric syndrome in long-term care (LTC) elders with prevalence rates of 10% to 39%. Sensory impairment, specifically vision and hearing impairment, is even more common in LTC, with prevalence rates of 40% to 90%. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk relationship between sensory impairment and the development of acute confusion in LTC elders. Each resident (N = 114) underwent sensory screening and then was followed for 28 days to monitor for the onset of acute confusion. Twenty residents (17.5%) developed acute confusion, 60 residents (52.6%) were found to be visually impaired, 49 (44.1%) were hearing impaired, and 28 (24.6%) were found to be dually impaired. Significant relationships between vision impairment, odds ratio (OR) = 3.67, confidence interval (CI) (1.13, 11.92), and dual sensory impairment, OR = 2.88, CI (1.04, 8.26), with the development of acute confusion were identified.
    • PubMed ID
  • Mortality and morbidity in nonagenarian patients following hip fracture surgery. 2003 Formiga F, Lopez-Soto A, Sacanella E, Coscojuela A, Suso S, Pujol R. Gerontology, 49:1 (41-5)
    • Title

      Mortality and morbidity in nonagenarian patients following hip fracture surgery.

    • Authors
      Formiga F, Lopez-Soto A, Sacanella E, Coscojuela A, Suso S, Pujol R
    • Year
      2003
    • Journal
      Gerontology
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The number of people living more than 90 years is increasing, and this population shows a high incidence of hip fractures.
    • PubMed ID
  • The last forty-eight hours of life in a Portuguese palliative care unit: does it differ from elsewhere? 2003 Gonçalves JF, Alvarenga M, Silva A. Journal of palliative medicine, 6:6 (895-900)
    • Title

      The last forty-eight hours of life in a Portuguese palliative care unit: does it differ from elsewhere?

    • Authors
      Gonçalves JF, Alvarenga M, Silva A
    • Year
      2003
    • Journal
      Journal of palliative medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The last few days of life have received significant attention in the literature. Reports have shown similarities and differences between programs. As a palliative care service in a cultural context that has not been reported on, we thought that an audit of our own experience in the care of patients in the last 48 hours of life and a comparison with other programs would be important. A prospective audit was designed to record data for four general domains: general demographic information, symptom prevalence, patient performance status, and perceived level of comfort. The inclusion criteria of patients were: older than 15 years of age (an admission criterion for patients of the unit), diagnosis of cancer, no active cancer-direct treatments, and patients who were on the unit for longer than 48 hours. The audit was completed when the 300th eligible patient died in the unit. Twenty-nine of 300 patients (9.6%) required sedation and the most common cause was delirium. Morphine was the most widely prescribed medication (85% of patients). The subcutaneous route was utilized extensively. Only 12% of the patients received parenteral fluids, usually via hypodermoclisis. Death was considered by staff to have been peaceful in 86% of cases. Our practice appears to mirror that of other palliative care groups.
    • PubMed ID
  • Systemic infection, interleukin 1beta, and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. 2003 Holmes C, El-Okl M, Williams AL, Cunningham C, Wilcockson D, Perry VH. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 74:6 (788-9)
    • Title

      Systemic infection, interleukin 1beta, and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

    • Authors
      Holmes C, El-Okl M, Williams AL, Cunningham C, Wilcockson D, Perry VH
    • Year
      2003
    • Journal
      Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Activated microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, are a feature of Alzheimer's disease. Animal models suggest that when activated microglia are further activated by a subsequent systemic infection this results in significantly raised levels of interleukin 1beta within the CNS, which may in turn potentiate neurodegeneration. This prospective pilot study in Alzheimer's disease subjects showed that cognitive function can be impaired for at least two months after the resolution of a systemic infection and that cognitive impairment is preceded by raised serum levels of interleukin 1beta. These relations were not confounded by the presence of any subsequent systemic infection or by baseline cognitive scores. Further research is needed to determine whether recurrent systemic infections drive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease subjects through a cytokine mediated pathway.
    • PubMed ID
  • Postoperative confusion in schizophrenic patients is affected by interleukin-6. 2003 Kudoh A, Takase H, Takahira Y, Katagai H, Takazawa T. Journal of clinical anesthesia, 15:6 (455-62)
    • Title

      Postoperative confusion in schizophrenic patients is affected by interleukin-6.

    • Authors
      Kudoh A, Takase H, Takahira Y, Katagai H, Takazawa T
    • Year
      2003
    • Journal
      Journal of clinical anesthesia
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To investigate whether epidural analgesia with local anesthetics affects postoperative confusion in schizophrenic patients or the relationships between cortisol or interleukin-6 (IL-6) and postoperative confusion.
    • PubMed ID
  • Treating depression in Alzheimer disease: efficacy and safety of sertraline therapy, and the benefits of depression reduction: the DIADS. 2003 Lyketsos CG, DelCampo L, Steinberg M, Miles Q, Steele CD, Munro C, Baker AS, Sheppard JM, Frangakis C, Brandt J, Rabins PV. Archives of general psychiatry, 60:7 (737-46)
    • Title

      Treating depression in Alzheimer disease: efficacy and safety of sertraline therapy, and the benefits of depression reduction: the DIADS.

    • Authors
      Lyketsos CG, DelCampo L, Steinberg M, Miles Q, Steele CD, Munro C, Baker AS, Sheppard JM, Frangakis C, Brandt J, Rabins PV
    • Year
      2003
    • Journal
      Archives of general psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Major depression affects about 25% of the patients who have Alzheimer disease and has serious adverse consequences for patients and caregivers. Results of prior antidepressant treatment studies have produced contradictory findings and have not fully assessed the benefits of depression reduction.
    • PubMed ID
  • Six-month neuropsychological outcome of medical intensive care unit patients. 2003 Jackson JC, Hart RP, Gordon SM, Shintani A, Truman B, May L, Ely EW. Critical care medicine, 31:4 (1226-34)
    • Title

      Six-month neuropsychological outcome of medical intensive care unit patients.

    • Authors
      Jackson JC, Hart RP, Gordon SM, Shintani A, Truman B, May L, Ely EW
    • Year
      2003
    • Journal
      Critical care medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To examine neuropsychological function, depression, and quality of life 6 months after discharge in patients who received mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit.
    • PubMed ID
  • Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult. 2002 Jacobi J, Fraser GL, Coursin DB, Riker RR, Fontaine D, Wittbrodt ET, Chalfin DB, Masica MF, Bjerke HS, Coplin WM, Crippen DW, Fuchs BD, Kelleher RM, Marik PE, Nasraway SA, Murray MJ, Peruzzi WT, Lumb PD, . Critical care medicine, 30:1 (119-41)
    • Title

      Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult.

    • Authors
      Jacobi J, Fraser GL, Coursin DB, Riker RR, Fontaine D, Wittbrodt ET, Chalfin DB, Masica MF, Bjerke HS, Coplin WM, Crippen DW, Fuchs BD, Kelleher RM, Marik PE, Nasraway SA, Murray MJ, Peruzzi WT, Lumb PD,
    • Year
      2002
    • Journal
      Critical care medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
    • PubMed ID
  • Exposure to opioid analgesia in cognitively impaired and delirious elderly hip fracture patients. 2002 Adunsky A, Levy R, Mizrahi E, Arad M. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 35:3 (245-51)
    • Title

      Exposure to opioid analgesia in cognitively impaired and delirious elderly hip fracture patients.

    • Authors
      Adunsky A, Levy R, Mizrahi E, Arad M
    • Year
      2002
    • Journal
      Archives of gerontology and geriatrics
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The objectives of this study were to characterize patterns of opioid analgesia in elderly hip fracture patients, to investigate the possible differences in the treatment of cognitively impaired, delirious, or cognitively intact patients, and to study the factors that may affect the doses received by such patients. This retrospective study comprised 184 elderly patients with hip fractures undergoing surgical fixation. Data collection included age, sex, length of stay, type of fracture, cognitive status by mini-mental state examination, assessment of possible delirium by the confusion assessment method, type and doses of opioid received by these patients. We found that the amount of morphine equianalgesic dose differed significantly between demented and non-demented patients (7.5 +/- 1.8 vs. 14.1 +/- 4.9, P<0.001). Patients with cognitive decline or with delirium received only 53 and 34%, respectively, of the amount of opioid that was administered to cognitively intact patients. A significant association was observed between cognitive status, or delirium, and amount of opioid analgesia (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Other parameters such as age, length of stay and type of fracture, had no effect on the use of opioid analgesia. It is concluded that the management of pain in older persons with hip fracture surgery is suboptimal with regards to insufficient administration of opioid analgesia in demented and delirious patients. The adoption of a standardized protocol for pain control may help in reducing the extent of this problem.
    • PubMed ID
  • Meperidine analgesia and delirium in aged hip fracture patients. 2002 Adunsky A, Levy R, Heim M, Mizrahi E, Arad M. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 35:3 (253-9)
    • Title

      Meperidine analgesia and delirium in aged hip fracture patients.

    • Authors
      Adunsky A, Levy R, Heim M, Mizrahi E, Arad M
    • Year
      2002
    • Journal
      Archives of gerontology and geriatrics
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium is quite frequent in elderly patients who sustain hip fractures. The use of Meperidine by physicians, unaware of the possible emergence of delirium in elderly patients, is very popular. We have retrospectively examined the incidence of delirium in 181 consecutive patients admitted to the orthogeriatric ward with hip fractures. We used the confusion assessment method to establish the presence of delirium in all patients. A database search was conducted to identify which patients were treated by Meperidine, or Morphine, prior to delirium onset. We identified 92 cases, 44 of whom were treated by Meperidine alone, and the other 48 treated by Morphine alone. Delirium was diagnosed in 13 (27.1%) Morphine treated patients as compared with 19 (43.2%) treated by Meperidine (P<0.001). Age, cognitive status and opiate use were associated with perioperative delirium. A subset regression analysis showed that exposure to Meperidine was significantly associated with delirium (odds ratio 2.5, P<0.01), in contrast with Morphine. Our results confirm the association between exposure to Meperidine and delirium, suggesting that this drug should be withdrawn in elderly hip fractured patients undergoing surgery, and substituted by low dose Morphine analgesia. Reducing the incidence of delirium, by adopting such an approach, may result in a significant potential of savings in direct costs, related to treatment of delirium in this population.
    • PubMed ID
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