Delirium Bibliography

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

You may base your search on as many search terms as you like. A search term can be a keyword, an author's name, all or part of an article's title, or any word or phrase that you might expect to find in an article's abstract. You may then indicate whether you would like to limit the search to one or more options.

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Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 3105

  • Diagnosing delirium by telephone. 1998 Marcantonio ER, Michaels M, Resnick NM. Journal of general internal medicine, 13:9 (621-3)
    • Title

      Diagnosing delirium by telephone.

    • Authors
      Marcantonio ER, Michaels M, Resnick NM
    • Year
      1998
    • Journal
      Journal of general internal medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To determine whether delirium can be diagnosed by telephone, we interviewed 41 subjects aged 65 years or older 1 month after repair of hip fracture, first by telephone and then face-to-face. Interviews included the modified telephone Mini-Mental State Examination and the Delirium Symptom Interview. Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method diagnostic algorithm, and the telephone results were compared with the face-to-face results (the "gold standard"). Of 41 subjects, 6 were delirious by face-to-face assessment; all 6 were delirious by telephone (sensitivity 1.00). Of 35 patients not delirious by face-to-face assessment, 33 patients were not delirious by telephone (specificity = 0.94). We conclude that telephone interviews can effectively rule out delirium, but the positive diagnosis should be confirmed by a face-to-face assessment, especially in populations with a low prevalence of delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • Measuring delirium severity in older general hospital inpatients without dementia. The Delirium Severity Scale. 1998 Bettin KM, Maletta GJ, Dysken MW, Jilk KM, Weldon DT, Kuskowski M, Mach JR. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 6:4 (296-307)
    • Title

      Measuring delirium severity in older general hospital inpatients without dementia. The Delirium Severity Scale.

    • Authors
      Bettin KM, Maletta GJ, Dysken MW, Jilk KM, Weldon DT, Kuskowski M, Mach JR
    • Year
      1998
    • Journal
      The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The authors evaluated the validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change of the Delirium Severity Scale (DSS), a 10-minute assessment consisting of Forward Digit Span and Similarities. Twenty-two older inpatients with delirium but not dementia and 15 control patients were administered the DSS during hospitalization. Scores were significantly inversely correlated with experts' quantitative ratings of severity at all three time-points examined. The DSS showed significant improvement over time (P < 0.001) and significant correlation with improvement in expert ratings (P = 0.026). The DSS shows promise as a valid and reliable measure sensitive to changing symptom severity.
    • PubMed ID
  • Screening for dementia in the outpatient setting: the time and change test. 1998 Froehlich TE, Robison JT, Inouye SK. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46:12 (1506-11)
    • Title

      Screening for dementia in the outpatient setting: the time and change test.

    • Authors
      Froehlich TE, Robison JT, Inouye SK
    • Year
      1998
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To develop and validate the Time and Change (T&C) test, a simple, standardized method for detecting dementia in a diverse older outpatient population with varying levels of education.
    • PubMed ID
  • Behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of delirium. 1997 Jacobson S, Schreibman B. American family physician, 56:8 (2005-12)
    • Title

      Behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of delirium.

    • Authors
      Jacobson S, Schreibman B
    • Year
      1997
    • Journal
      American family physician
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium is an acute confusional state with a fluctuating course. Since the syndrome of delirium is associated with derangements of cognition, attention and level of consciousness, it can cause behaviors that are difficult to manage. Hallucinations, agitation, insomnia and anxiety are common in the delirious patient. Behavioral and pharmacologic interventions can be used while the underlying etiology of delirium is sought. Nonpharmacologic measures include frequent reassurance, environmental cues to reorient the patient and the judicious use of physical restraints. Haloperidol, which has negligible anticholinergic effects, is the drug most often used to treat the symptoms of delirium. Short-acting benzodiazepines may be useful in patients with delirium caused by alcohol withdrawal, but these agents may cause increased agitation in elderly patients and patients with hepatic dysfunction.
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirium in geropsychiatric patients: patient characteristics and treatment outcomes. 1997 McGee SB, Orengo CA, Kunik ME, Molinari VA, Workman RH. Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology, 10:1 (7-10)
    • Title

      Delirium in geropsychiatric patients: patient characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    • Authors
      McGee SB, Orengo CA, Kunik ME, Molinari VA, Workman RH
    • Year
      1997
    • Journal
      Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The authors examined the effect of hospitalization on cognitive and behavioral symptoms in delirious elderly patients with and without dementia. Forty-four (13%) of the patients admitted to a Veterans Affairs Medical Center geropsychiatric unit were diagnosed with delirium and were administered the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Rating Scale for Side Effects, and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. The total sample significantly improved on all measures. When patients with delirium were divided into subgroups with and without dementia, both subgroups improved similarly. Patients discharged to more restrictive environments improved significantly on the BPRS only.
    • PubMed ID
  • Assessing attentiveness in older hospital patients: global assessment versus tests of attention. 1997 O'Keeffe ST, Gosney MA. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45:4 (470-3)
    • Title

      Assessing attentiveness in older hospital patients: global assessment versus tests of attention.

    • Authors
      O'Keeffe ST, Gosney MA
    • Year
      1997
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Impairment of attentiveness is a cardinal symptom of delirium. We examined the relationship between bedside tests of attention and a global rating of attentiveness in older hospital patients and sought to identify cut-off points on the tests of attention that might be helpful in the diagnosis of delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • Development and evaluation of evidence based risk assessment tool (STRATIFY) to predict which elderly inpatients will fall: case-control and cohort studies. 1997 Oliver D, Britton M, Seed P, Martin FC, Hopper AH. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 315:7115 (1049-53)
    • Title

      Development and evaluation of evidence based risk assessment tool (STRATIFY) to predict which elderly inpatients will fall: case-control and cohort studies.

    • Authors
      Oliver D, Britton M, Seed P, Martin FC, Hopper AH
    • Year
      1997
    • Journal
      BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To identify clinical characteristics of elderly inpatients that predict their chance of falling (phase 1) and to use these characteristics to derive a risk assessment tool and to evaluate its power in predicting falls (phases 2 and 3).
    • PubMed ID
  • The natural history of delirium in older hospitalized patients: a syndrome of heterogeneity. 1997 Rudberg MA, Pompei P, Foreman MD, Ross RE, Cassel CK. Age and ageing, 26:3 (169-74)
    • Title

      The natural history of delirium in older hospitalized patients: a syndrome of heterogeneity.

    • Authors
      Rudberg MA, Pompei P, Foreman MD, Ross RE, Cassel CK
    • Year
      1997
    • Journal
      Age and ageing
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To determine the presentation, course and duration of delirium in hospitalized older people.
    • PubMed ID
  • The informed consent process in older patients who developed delirium: a clinical epidemiologic study. 1997 Auerswald KB, Charpentier PA, Inouye SK. The American journal of medicine, 103:5 (410-8)
    • Title

      The informed consent process in older patients who developed delirium: a clinical epidemiologic study.

    • Authors
      Auerswald KB, Charpentier PA, Inouye SK
    • Year
      1997
    • Journal
      The American journal of medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium, defined as an acute, fluctuating disorder of attention and cognition, is a serious and increasingly common problem for hospitalized older persons. Delirium poses unique ethical challenges for the informed consent process, notably the preservation of patient autonomy in the face of potentially fluctuating decision-making capacity. To clarify these issues, we examined the informed consent process in a group of hospitalized older patients who developed delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • The incidence of delirium in psychiatric inpatient units. 1997 Patten SB, Williams JV, Haynes L, McCruden J, Arboleda-Flórez J. Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 42:8 (858-63)
    • Title

      The incidence of delirium in psychiatric inpatient units.

    • Authors
      Patten SB, Williams JV, Haynes L, McCruden J, Arboleda-Flórez J
    • Year
      1997
    • Journal
      Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To estimate prospectively the incidence of delirium in psychiatric inpatients and to identify risk factors for delirium in this population.
    • PubMed ID
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