Delirium Bibliography

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

You may base your search on as many search terms as you like. A search term can be a keyword, an author's name, all or part of an article's title, or any word or phrase that you might expect to find in an article's abstract. You may then indicate whether you would like to limit the search to one or more options.

The results are prioritized so that entries including all search terms will be listed first, but you can indicate whether to then sort by title (the default), by author, by journal name or by publication year.

You may further restrict to a topic category. Note: If you do not enter any search terms, the results will include all of the entries for the selected topic category.

More information about each entry on this page is available by moving the mouse over the green information symbols.

Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 3105

  • Delirium: a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians caring for the elderly. 1994 Levkoff SE, Marcantonio ER. Comprehensive therapy, 20:10 (550-7)
    • Title

      Delirium: a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians caring for the elderly.

    • Authors
      Levkoff SE, Marcantonio ER
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      Comprehensive therapy
    • URL
    • Abstract
    • PubMed ID
  • The dilemma of delirium: clinical and research controversies regarding diagnosis and evaluation of delirium in hospitalized elderly medical patients. 1994 Inouye SK. The American journal of medicine, 97:3 (278-88)
    • Title

      The dilemma of delirium: clinical and research controversies regarding diagnosis and evaluation of delirium in hospitalized elderly medical patients.

    • Authors
      Inouye SK
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      The American journal of medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium, with occurrence rates from 14% to 56%, associated mortality rates from 10% to 65%, and excess annual health care expenditures from $1 to $2 billion, poses a common and serious problem for hospitalized elderly patients. Delirium is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by physicians caring for elderly patients. Cognitive testing is rarely done as part of the admission evaluation of elderly hospitalized patients. Specific diagnosis has been difficult, since diagnostic criteria and instruments are still being developed. The etiology of delirium is complex and multifactorial, and both predisposing (host vulnerability) and precipitating factors must be considered. The recommended approach to the evaluation of delirium is empiric, in the absence of objective efficacy data. The cornerstone of evaluation includes a careful history, physical examination, and review of the medication list--since medications are the most common reversible cause of delirium. Research is needed to establish a cost-effective approach and to clarify the role of further testing, such as cerebrospinal fluid examination, brain imaging, and electroencephalography. This article is intended to heighten the awareness of clinicians as well as to stimulate research to address this important, neglected problem for elderly hospitalized patients.
    • PubMed ID
  • A clinical prediction rule for delirium after elective noncardiac surgery. 1994 Marcantonio ER, Goldman L, Mangione CM, Ludwig LE, Muraca B, Haslauer CM, Donaldson MC, Whittemore AD, Sugarbaker DJ, Poss R. JAMA, 271:2 (134-9)
    • Title

      A clinical prediction rule for delirium after elective noncardiac surgery.

    • Authors
      Marcantonio ER, Goldman L, Mangione CM, Ludwig LE, Muraca B, Haslauer CM, Donaldson MC, Whittemore AD, Sugarbaker DJ, Poss R
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      JAMA
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To develop and validate a clinical prediction rule for postoperative delirium using data available to clinicians preoperatively.
    • PubMed ID
  • Systematic intervention for elderly inpatients with delirium: a randomized trial. 1994 Cole MG, Primeau FJ, Bailey RF, Bonnycastle MJ, Masciarelli F, Engelsmann F, Pepin MJ, Ducic D. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, 151:7 (965-70)
    • Title

      Systematic intervention for elderly inpatients with delirium: a randomized trial.

    • Authors
      Cole MG, Primeau FJ, Bailey RF, Bonnycastle MJ, Masciarelli F, Engelsmann F, Pepin MJ, Ducic D
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To assess a systematic intervention in cases of delirium in elderly inpatients.
    • PubMed ID
  • Acute confusion: nursing intervention in older patients. 1994 Matthiesen V, Sivertsen L, Foreman MD, Cronin-Stubbs D. Orthopedic nursing, 13:2 (21-7, 29; quiz 28-9)
    • Title

      Acute confusion: nursing intervention in older patients.

    • Authors
      Matthiesen V, Sivertsen L, Foreman MD, Cronin-Stubbs D
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      Orthopedic nursing
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Older patients are at high risk for developing acute confusion while hospitalized with an associated increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Causes for acute confusion include physiologic, psychosocial, and environmental alterations. Often not recognized by nurses, acute confusion needs to be differentiated from depression and dementia. Nursing assessment of acute confusion should include baseline data on cognition, behavior, and functional status. Standard, routine, and systematic assessments of cognition, behavior, and functional status need to be ongoing during hospitalization if nurses are to identify and manage acute confusion in hospitalized older patients.
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirium in hospitalized older persons: outcomes and predictors. 1994 Pompei P, Foreman M, Rudberg MA, Inouye SK, Braund V, Cassel CK. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42:8 (809-15)
    • Title

      Delirium in hospitalized older persons: outcomes and predictors.

    • Authors
      Pompei P, Foreman M, Rudberg MA, Inouye SK, Braund V, Cassel CK
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The purpose of this study was fourfold; to determine the rate of delirium among hospitalized older persons, to contrast the clinical outcomes of patients with and without delirium, to identify clinical predictors of delirium, and to validate the predictive model in an independent sample of patients.
    • PubMed ID
  • Factors associated with falling in elderly hospital patients. 1994 Salgado R, Lord SR, Packer J, Ehrlich F. Gerontology, 40:6 (325-31)
    • Title

      Factors associated with falling in elderly hospital patients.

    • Authors
      Salgado R, Lord SR, Packer J, Ehrlich F
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      Gerontology
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Forty-four patients aged 65 years and over who fell whilst in an acute hospital and 44 patients who did not fall during their hospital stay underwent structured medical examinations to identify factors associated with falling. The control subjects were matched for age (+/- 3 years), sex, patient type, and primary diagnosis. The examination was based on established assessments of posture, balance and gait, the musculoskeletal system, vision, cardiovascular status, and neurological function. Bivariate analyses revealed seven assessment measures that were significantly associated with falls: cognitive impairment, particularly impaired orientation; evidence of previous cerebrovascular accident; incoordination as measured clinically; inability to perform the 'Get-up-and-go' test, especially an inability to turn around after a 5-metre walk, and the use of psycho-active medications. Of these variables, impaired orientation, psycho-active drug use, evidence of stroke, and impaired performance in the 'Get-up-and-go' test were included in a stepwise logistic regression which correctly classified 80% of the patients into faller and non-faller groups. Falling was also related to the number of these identified risk factors. These findings suggest that a simple screening protocol, taking about 5 min to complete, can assist in the identification of patients at risk of falls whilst in hospital.
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirium and physical restraint in the hospitalized elderly. 1994 Sullivan-Marx EM. Image--the journal of nursing scholarship, 26:4 (295-300)
    • Title

      Delirium and physical restraint in the hospitalized elderly.

    • Authors
      Sullivan-Marx EM
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      Image--the journal of nursing scholarship
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium or acute confusion increase the likelihood of physical restraint use and subsequent harmful physical and psychological effects. Assessment for delirium is presented as a conceptual framework to guide researchers, administrators, and clinicians in developing strategies to decrease the use of physical restraint and to support quality of life for hospitalized older adults.
    • PubMed ID
  • Increasing the recognition of delirium in elderly patients. 1994 Rockwood K, Cosway S, Stolee P, Kydd D, Carver D, Jarrett P, O'Brien B. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42:3 (252-6)
    • Title

      Increasing the recognition of delirium in elderly patients.

    • Authors
      Rockwood K, Cosway S, Stolee P, Kydd D, Carver D, Jarrett P, O'Brien B
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To determine if an educational intervention aimed at house staff will increase knowledge about and recognition of delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • The relationship of postoperative delirium with psychoactive medications. 1994 Marcantonio ER, Juarez G, Goldman L, Mangione CM, Ludwig LE, Lind L, Katz N, Cook EF, Orav EJ, Lee TH. JAMA, 272:19 (1518-22)
    • Title

      The relationship of postoperative delirium with psychoactive medications.

    • Authors
      Marcantonio ER, Juarez G, Goldman L, Mangione CM, Ludwig LE, Lind L, Katz N, Cook EF, Orav EJ, Lee TH
    • Year
      1994
    • Journal
      JAMA
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To examine the role of medications with known psychoactive properties in the development of postoperative delirium.
    • PubMed ID
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