Delirium Bibliography

**The Delirium Bibliography is moving!**

 

We're excited to announce that the Delirium Bibliography has been moved to the Network for Investigation of Delirium: Unifying Scientists (NIDUS) website! The new bibliography includes well over 3,000 references on delirium and acute care for elders in addition to new references on pediatric delirium, as well. Articles in the new bibliography are still indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases, and they can be easily browsed with a search function. Questions? Email margaretwebb@hsl.harvard.edu

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

You may base your search on as many search terms as you like. A search term can be a keyword, an author's name, all or part of an article's title, or any word or phrase that you might expect to find in an article's abstract. You may then indicate whether you would like to limit the search to one or more options.

The results are prioritized so that entries including all search terms will be listed first, but you can indicate whether to then sort by title (the default), by author, by journal name or by publication year.

You may further restrict to a topic category. Note: If you do not enter any search terms, the results will include all of the entries for the selected topic category.

More information about each entry on this page is available by moving the mouse over the green information symbols.

Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 3263

  • Delirium episode as a sign of undetected dementia among community dwelling elderly subjects. 2001 Meagher D. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 70:6 (821)
    • Title

      Delirium episode as a sign of undetected dementia among community dwelling elderly subjects.

    • Authors
      Meagher D
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
    • PubMed ID
  • A nurse-led interdisciplinary intervention program for delirium in elderly hip-fracture patients. 2001 Milisen K, Foreman MD, Abraham IL, De Geest S, Godderis J, Vandermeulen E, Fischler B, Delooz HH, Spiessens B, Broos PL. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49:5 (523-32)
    • Title

      A nurse-led interdisciplinary intervention program for delirium in elderly hip-fracture patients.

    • Authors
      Milisen K, Foreman MD, Abraham IL, De Geest S, Godderis J, Vandermeulen E, Fischler B, Delooz HH, Spiessens B, Broos PL
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To develop and test the effect of a nurse-led interdisciplinary intervention program for delirium on the incidence and course (severity and duration) of delirium, cognitive functioning, functional rehabilitation, mortality, and length of stay in older hip-fracture patients.
    • PubMed ID
  • Evaluation of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) as a screening tool for delirium in the emergency room. 2001 Monette J, Galbaud du Fort G, Fung SH, Massoud F, Moride Y, Arsenault L, Afilalo M. General hospital psychiatry, 23:1 (20-5)
    • Title

      Evaluation of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) as a screening tool for delirium in the emergency room.

    • Authors
      Monette J, Galbaud du Fort G, Fung SH, Massoud F, Moride Y, Arsenault L, Afilalo M
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      General hospital psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The objective of this study was to compare the results of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) obtained by a trained non-physician interviewer to those obtained by a geriatrician, among a sample of elderly patients seen in an emergency room. A group of 110 elderly patients (> or =66 years) were evaluated in the emergency room by a lay interviewer. The geriatrician conducted an interview in the presence of the lay interviewer. Subsequently, the geriatrician and the lay interviewer completed a CAM checklist independently. Kappa statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positivity predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the geriatrician's and lay interviewer's results with the CAM diagnostic algorithm were compared. The kappa coefficient was 0.91, the sensitivity 0.86, the specificity 1.00, the PPV 1.00, and the NPV 0.97. In conclusion, the CAM used by a trained lay interviewer in the emergency room is sensitive, specific, reliable and easy to use for the identification of patients with delirium. The under-recognition and under-treatment of delirium is a major health issue and has important clinical and financial implications. The implementation of systematic screening in populations at risk could increase the rate of early detection and lead to the appropriate management of delirious patients.
    • PubMed ID
  • Communication Capacity Scale and Agitation Distress Scale to measure the severity of delirium in terminally ill cancer patients: a validation study. 2001 Morita T, Tsunoda J, Inoue S, Chihara S, Oka K. Palliative medicine, 15:3 (197-206)
    • Title

      Communication Capacity Scale and Agitation Distress Scale to measure the severity of delirium in terminally ill cancer patients: a validation study.

    • Authors
      Morita T, Tsunoda J, Inoue S, Chihara S, Oka K
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Palliative medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Although valid measurement of the severity of terminal delirium is of great importance in palliative care settings, existing instruments have considerable limitations. In order to quantify patients' communication capacity and agitated behaviour, two new operational observer-rating scales, the Communication Capacity Scale (Communication Scale) and Agitation Distress Scale (Agitation Scale), were validated. Thirty terminally ill cancer patients diagnosed with delirium were evaluated simultaneously by two palliative care physicians blinded to each other's coding using the Communication Scale and Agitation Scale. In addition, the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) and Sedation Scale were rated by one researcher. Both scales achieved high internal consistency and inter-rater reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.91 and 0.96, and Cohen's kappa values on each item of 0.72-1.00. The principal components analysis resulted in the emergence of only one component for each scale. The total score on the Communication Scale was highly associated with that of the MDAS (rho = 0.78), Sedation Scale (rho = 0.86), and cognitive items from the MDAS and DRS (rho = 0.83). The whole score on the Agitation Scale was significantly correlated with that of the DRS (rho = 0.61) and agitation items from the MDAS and DRS (rho = 0.61). In conclusion, the Communication Scale and Agitation Scale have acceptable reliability and validity to quantify patients' communication capacity and agitation symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients with delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • Association of plasma free-3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl (ethylene)glycol, natural killer cell activity and delirium in postoperative patients. 2001 Nakamura J, Yoshimura R, Okuno T, Ueda N, Hachida M, Yasumoto K, Egami H, Maeda H, Nishi M, Aoyagi S. International clinical psychopharmacology, 16:6 (339-43)
    • Title

      Association of plasma free-3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl (ethylene)glycol, natural killer cell activity and delirium in postoperative patients.

    • Authors
      Nakamura J, Yoshimura R, Okuno T, Ueda N, Hachida M, Yasumoto K, Egami H, Maeda H, Nishi M, Aoyagi S
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      International clinical psychopharmacology
    • URL
    • Abstract
      We measured and compared levels of plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl (ethylene)glycol (pMHPG), a major metabolite of noradrenaline, and natural killer (NK) cell activity in 26 patients prior to their undergoing an operation for cardiovascular diseases; 11 of whom expressed delirium and 15 who did not. In conclusion, we found that pMHPG levels before an operation were higher in patients with postoperative delirium than in the patients without, while NK cell activity showed no difference between the two groups. It is possible that hyperactivity of noradrenargic neurons is connected with the development of postoperative delirium. Furthermore, we considered that measurement of pMHPG level before operation might be a useful tool to predict the occurrence of postoperative delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirium in the non-demented oldest old in the general population: risk factors and prognosis. 2001 Rahkonen T, Eloniemi-Sulkava U, Halonen P, Verkkoniemi A, Niinistö L, Notkola IL, Sulkava R. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 16:4 (415-21)
    • Title

      Delirium in the non-demented oldest old in the general population: risk factors and prognosis.

    • Authors
      Rahkonen T, Eloniemi-Sulkava U, Halonen P, Verkkoniemi A, Niinistö L, Notkola IL, Sulkava R
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      International journal of geriatric psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The oldest old are prone to develop delirium. Studies into risk factors for delirium have been carried out predominantly in younger age groups. The aim of this population-based follow-up study was to investigate the risk factors for delirium requiring medical attention and subsequent prognosis in the non-demented general population aged > or = 85 years.
    • PubMed ID
  • Prevalence, detection and treatment of anxiety, depression, and delirium in the adult critical care unit. 2001 Rincon HG, Granados M, Unutzer J, Gomez M, Duran R, Badiel M, Salas C, Martinez J, Mejia J, Ordoñez C, Florez N, Rosso F, Echeverri P. Psychosomatics, 42:5 (391-6)
    • Title

      Prevalence, detection and treatment of anxiety, depression, and delirium in the adult critical care unit.

    • Authors
      Rincon HG, Granados M, Unutzer J, Gomez M, Duran R, Badiel M, Salas C, Martinez J, Mejia J, Ordoñez C, Florez N, Rosso F, Echeverri P
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Psychosomatics
    • URL
    • Abstract
      This study assesses the levels of depression, anxiety, and delirium during admission to three adult critical care units (CCU) and the performance of CCU staff with respect to detection and treatment. During a 1-month period, 96 consecutive patients were evaluated on the first day of admission by an independent rater, using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and the Confusional Assessment Method. Frequency of alcohol use and demographic data were recorded. CCU teams rarely made diagnoses of anxiety, depression, or delirium. On at least one screening test, 29.2% of patients were positive. Delirium was present in 7.3%, depression in 13.7%, anxiety in 24%, and possible problem drinking in 37.9%. Although some form of psychiatric treatment was offered to 58%, there was low agreement between psychiatric diagnoses made by the independent rater and the diagnoses made and treatments used by CCU staff. This suggests that the CCU staff are using psychotropic medications without any clear documentation and perhaps clear understanding of the psychiatric diagnoses they are treating. In summary, we found high rates of psychiatric disorders in adult CCU patients but low rates of detection and only moderate rates of treatment by CCU staff.
    • PubMed ID
  • Hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in demented patients with delirium. 2001 Robertsson B, Blennow K, Bråne G, Edman A, Karlsson I, Wallin A, Gottfries CG. International clinical psychopharmacology, 16:1 (39-47)
    • Title

      Hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in demented patients with delirium.

    • Authors
      Robertsson B, Blennow K, Bråne G, Edman A, Karlsson I, Wallin A, Gottfries CG
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      International clinical psychopharmacology
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Occurrence of delirium is known to be related to, among other things, organic brain disorder, somatic disease and old age. It has been hypothesized that delirium is also associated with stress. Disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system have been found in delirious patients in various studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the activity in the HPA axis in demented patients to ascertain whether the stress regulating system was more disturbed in patients with delirium than in those without delirium. Demented inpatients with no acute medical illness were included in the study. Basal cortisol levels in serum were measured and dexamethasone suppression test (DST) was performed. The most important finding of the study was a strong relationship between delirium and DST pathology irrespective of age and severity of dementia. It is suggested that certain demented individuals have an impaired HPA system and a low delirium threshold and respond to stress with delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • Assessment of delirium in advanced cancer: the use of the bedside confusion scale. 2001 Sarhill N, Walsh D, Nelson KA, LeGrand S, Davis MP. The American journal of hospice & palliative care, 18:5 (335-41)
    • Title

      Assessment of delirium in advanced cancer: the use of the bedside confusion scale.

    • Authors
      Sarhill N, Walsh D, Nelson KA, LeGrand S, Davis MP
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      The American journal of hospice & palliative care
    • URL
    • Abstract
      We conducted a prospective assessment of 50 consecutive admissions to an acute palliative medicine unit, using the bedside confusion scale (BSCS). Information including age, gender, diagnosis, and the presence or absence of brain metastasis was collected. Possible predisposing factors for delirium were recorded. Forty-one of 50 consecutive admissions were screened. There were 18 men and 23 women with a median age of 65 years (average: 60-75). The most common diagnoses among all were lung and breast cancer. Thirteen patients were delirious (BSCS score of > or = 2), 10 borderline (BSCS score = 1), and 21 normal (BSCS score = 0). Brain metastases and drugs appeared to be the most common predisposing factors of delirium. Forty percent of those that were delirious received haloperidol as symptomatic treatment. The BSCS is simple, portable, valid, quick, and easy to use by any medical team member. Delirium is common in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer.
    • PubMed ID
  • Early recognition of delirium: review of the literature. 2001 Schuurmans MJ, Duursma SA, Shortridge-Baggett LM. Journal of clinical nursing, 10:6 (721-9)
    • Title

      Early recognition of delirium: review of the literature.

    • Authors
      Schuurmans MJ, Duursma SA, Shortridge-Baggett LM
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Journal of clinical nursing
    • URL
    • Abstract
      This review focuses on delirium and early recognition of symptoms by nurses. Delirium is a transient organic mental syndrome characterized by disturbances in consciousness, thinking and memory. The incidence in older hospitalized patients is about 25%. The causes of delirium are multi-factorial; risk factors include high age, cognitive impairment and severity of illness. The consequences of delirium include high morbidity and mortality, lengthened hospital stay and nursing home placement. Delirium develops in a short period and symptoms fluctuate, therefore nurses are in a key position to recognize symptoms. Delirium is often overlooked or misdiagnosed due to lack of knowledge and awareness in nurses and doctors. To improve early recognition of delirium, emphasis should be given to terminology, vision and knowledge regarding health in ageing and delirium as a potential medical emergency, and to instruments for systematic screening of symptoms.
    • PubMed ID
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