Delirium Bibliography

**The Delirium Bibliography is moving!**

 

We're excited to announce that the Delirium Bibliography has been moved to the Network for Investigation of Delirium: Unifying Scientists (NIDUS) website! The new bibliography includes well over 3,000 references on delirium and acute care for elders in addition to new references on pediatric delirium, as well. Articles in the new bibliography are still indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases, and they can be easily browsed with a search function. Questions? Email margaretwebb@hsl.harvard.edu

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

You may base your search on as many search terms as you like. A search term can be a keyword, an author's name, all or part of an article's title, or any word or phrase that you might expect to find in an article's abstract. You may then indicate whether you would like to limit the search to one or more options.

The results are prioritized so that entries including all search terms will be listed first, but you can indicate whether to then sort by title (the default), by author, by journal name or by publication year.

You may further restrict to a topic category. Note: If you do not enter any search terms, the results will include all of the entries for the selected topic category.

More information about each entry on this page is available by moving the mouse over the green information symbols.

Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 3263

  • Postoperative delirium and melatonin levels in elderly patients. 2001 Shigeta H, Yasui A, Nimura Y, Machida N, Kageyama M, Miura M, Menjo M, Ikeda K. American journal of surgery, 182:5 (449-54)
    • Title

      Postoperative delirium and melatonin levels in elderly patients.

    • Authors
      Shigeta H, Yasui A, Nimura Y, Machida N, Kageyama M, Miura M, Menjo M, Ikeda K
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      American journal of surgery
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Melatonin, a hormone produced in the pineal gland, is involved in circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle. Postoperative delirium is encountered frequently in elderly patients after major surgery; whether changes in the pattern of melatonin secretion are associated is unclear.
    • PubMed ID
  • A survey on the drug therapy for delirium. 2001 Someya T, Endo T, Hara T, Yagi G, Suzuki J. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 55:4 (397-401)
    • Title

      A survey on the drug therapy for delirium.

    • Authors
      Someya T, Endo T, Hara T, Yagi G, Suzuki J
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium, which is experienced by 10-30% of inpatients, is commonly seen in daily practice. A survey was conducted of the delirium medications, and results were obtained from 28 psychiatric departments and related facilities. Haloperidol was used in 67% cases for the treatment of delirium. Ninety-seven per cent of facilities considered haloperidol as the drug of first choice, while 57% thought this drug had few side-effects and was easy to use. However, because the use of this drug is not covered by health insurance in Japan, its use is limited. We expect that this study on medication for the treatment of delirium will be a first step in increasing the approved indications for drugs used for the treatment of delirium, and to reduce off-label use.
    • PubMed ID
  • Factors associated with sudden death of individuals requiring restraint for excited delirium. 2001 Stratton SJ, Rogers C, Brickett K, Gruzinski G. The American journal of emergency medicine, 19:3 (187-91)
    • Title

      Factors associated with sudden death of individuals requiring restraint for excited delirium.

    • Authors
      Stratton SJ, Rogers C, Brickett K, Gruzinski G
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      The American journal of emergency medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The purpose of this article is to identify and rank factors associated with sudden death of individuals requiring restraint for excited delirium. Eighteen cases of such deaths witnessed by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel are reported. The 18 cases reported were restrained with the wrists and ankles bound and attached behind the back. This restraint technique was also used for all 196 surviving excited delirium victims encountered during the study period. Unique to these data is a description of the initial cardiopulmonary arrest rhythm in 72% of the sudden death cases. Associated with all sudden death cases was struggle by the victim with forced restraint and cessation of struggling with labored or agonal breathing immediately before cardiopulmonary arrest. Also associated was stimulant drug use (78%), chronic disease (56%), and obesity (56%). The primary cardiac arrest rhythm of ventricular tachycardia was found in 1 of 13 victims with confirmed initial cardiac rhythms, with none found in ventricular fibrillation. Our findings indicate that unexpected sudden death when excited delirium victims are restrained in the out-of-hospital setting is not infrequent and can be associated with multiple predictable but usually uncontrollable factors.
    • PubMed ID
  • Anxiety, delirium, and pain in the intensive care unit. 2001 Szokol JW, Vender JS. Critical care clinics, 17:4 (821-42)
    • Title

      Anxiety, delirium, and pain in the intensive care unit.

    • Authors
      Szokol JW, Vender JS
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Critical care clinics
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Anxiety, agitation, delirium, and pain are common findings in the ICU. These unhealthy states may lead to increased irritability, discomfort, hypertension, tachycardia, cardiac ischemia, harmful motor activity, and psychologic disquiet for the patient. The appropriate treatment of these conditions may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill patient. Unfortunately, the management of anxiety, agitation, delirium, and pain in the intensive care unit is not ideal. Many patients interviewed after an ICU stay rate their pain control as poor and their memories of their stay as unpleasant. Furthermore, many caregivers lack sufficient understanding of the appropriate or indicated uses of drugs to allay patients' fears and pain. The use of suitable protocols for the proper titration of sedation of mechanically ventilated patients and monitoring of the level of sedation in ventilated patients may decrease the amount of time that patients are ventilated and may alleviate some of the emotional stresses of recall of painful procedures or uncomfortable mechanical ventilation. Future research into protocols for the care of the critically ill patient can enhance the overall well-being of these patients.
    • PubMed ID
  • Acute confusion in terminally ill hospitalized patients. 2001 Wakefield B, Johnson JA. Journal of gerontological nursing, 27:4 (49-55)
    • Title

      Acute confusion in terminally ill hospitalized patients.

    • Authors
      Wakefield B, Johnson JA
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Journal of gerontological nursing
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Knowledge about acute confusion (AC) has grown rapidly during the past decade, but very few studies have focused specifically on AC episodes associated with the end of life. Although experienced oncology clinicians accept that AC is common near the end of life, little is known about the frequency, nature, course, and timing of AC during this critical stage of life in patients with terminal cancer. Data suggest patients with advanced cancer have reversible causes of delirium, where appropriate treatment can result in improved outcomes. The data for this article are drawn from a larger study investigating the incidence, prevalence, behaviors, and outcomes of AC in acutely ill medical patients. The diagnosis of AC was ascertained using the NEECHAM Confusion Scale. Of the 117 participants included in the larger study, 16 developed delirium (cumulative incidence estimate, 14%) and 10 died within 1 year of the index hospitalization. These 10 cases were categorized in two groups: those with a cancer-related diagnosis (n = 6) and those without cancer (n = 4). To further describe the nature of AC near the end of life, two case studies are presented. Because all previous studies were conducted using samples consisting of patients with cancer, it is unknown whether the findings reported in previous studies hold for other terminal illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure. The data presented in this article suggest there are differences in baseline vulnerability (e.g., cognitive status) and the timing of AC in relation to death. These differences need to be explored in a larger sample of individuals both with and without a diagnosis of cancer. The severity and course of AC in the terminally ill population needs to be described to gain a better understanding of end-of-life AC phenomenology (e.g., signs, patterns, subtypes). Armed with this information, health care providers will then be able to develop and test AC-specific treatments of patients, as well as counsel and support family members of patients experiencing AC.
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirious mania in the elderly. 2001 Weintraub D, Lippmann S. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 16:4 (374-7)
    • Title

      Delirious mania in the elderly.

    • Authors
      Weintraub D, Lippmann S
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      International journal of geriatric psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirious mania is a clinical syndrome in which the signs and symptoms of delirium manifest themselves in the context of a manic episode. Though there have been numerous descriptions and case reports of this syndrome, all have described mania as the presenting feature, with signs of delirium developing subsequently, and none of the vignettes have involved elderly patients. We report two cases of elderly individuals with mania who initially presented as in a delirium. Both of them experienced clear manic episodes, which were confirmed by their psychiatric histories and clinical responses to mood stabilizers. Mania needs to be in the differential diagnosis of elderly people presenting with confusion, disorientation, and perceptual changes, particularly in those with a history of bipolar disorder.
    • PubMed ID
  • Effectiveness of interventions to prevent delirium in hospitalized patients: a systemic review. 2001 Zeleznik J. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49:12 (1730-2)
    • Title

      Effectiveness of interventions to prevent delirium in hospitalized patients: a systemic review.

    • Authors
      Zeleznik J
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
    • PubMed ID
  • Acute confusional state in the elderly following hip surgery: incidence, risk factors and complications. 2001 Galanakis P, Bickel H, Gradinger R, Von Gumppenberg S, Förstl H. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 16:4 (349-55)
    • Title

      Acute confusional state in the elderly following hip surgery: incidence, risk factors and complications.

    • Authors
      Galanakis P, Bickel H, Gradinger R, Von Gumppenberg S, Förstl H
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      International journal of geriatric psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
      To determine incidence and risk factors for the development of postoperative acute confusional state (ACS) in the elderly.
    • PubMed ID
  • Use of medications with anticholinergic effect predicts clinical severity of delirium symptoms in older medical inpatients. 2001 Han L, McCusker J, Cole M, Abrahamowicz M, Primeau F, Elie M. Archives of internal medicine, 161:8 (1099-105)
    • Title

      Use of medications with anticholinergic effect predicts clinical severity of delirium symptoms in older medical inpatients.

    • Authors
      Han L, McCusker J, Cole M, Abrahamowicz M, Primeau F, Elie M
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Archives of internal medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Use of anticholinergic (ACH) medications is a biologically plausible and potentially modifiable risk factor of delirium, but research findings are conflicting regarding its association with delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • Establishing a case-finding and referral system for at-risk older individuals in the emergency department setting: the SIGNET model. 2001 Mion LC, Palmer RM, Anetzberger GJ, Meldon SW. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49:10 (1379-86)
    • Title

      Establishing a case-finding and referral system for at-risk older individuals in the emergency department setting: the SIGNET model.

    • Authors
      Mion LC, Palmer RM, Anetzberger GJ, Meldon SW
    • Year
      2001
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Older emergency department (ED) patients have complex medical, social, and physical problems. We established a program at four ED sites to improve case finding of at-risk older adults and provide comprehensive assessment in the ED setting with formal linkage to community agencies. The objectives of the program are to (1) improve case finding of at-risk older ED patients, (2) improve care planning and referral for those returning home, and (3) create a coordinated network of existing medical and community services. The four sites are a 1,000-bed teaching center, a 700-bed county teaching hospital, a 400-bed community hospital, and a health maintenance organization (HMO) ED site. Ten community agencies also participated in the study: four agencies associated with the hospital/HMO sites, two nonprofit private agencies, and four public agencies. Case finding is done using a simple screening assessment completed by the primary or triage nurse. A geriatric clinical nurse specialist (GCNS) further assesses those considered at risk. Patients with unmet medical, social, or health needs are referred to their primary physicians or to outpatient geriatric evaluation and management centers and to community agencies. After 18 months, the program has been successfully implemented at all four sites. Primary nurses screened over 70% (n = 28,437) of all older ED patients, GCNSs conducted 3,757 comprehensive assessments, participating agency referrals increased sixfold, and few patients refused the GCNS assessment or subsequent referral services. Thus, case finding and community linkage programs for at-risk older adults are feasible in the ED setting.
    • PubMed ID
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