Delirium Bibliography

**The Delirium Bibliography is moving!**

 

We're excited to announce that the Delirium Bibliography has been moved to the Network for Investigation of Delirium: Unifying Scientists (NIDUS) website! The new bibliography includes well over 3,000 references on delirium and acute care for elders in addition to new references on pediatric delirium, as well. Articles in the new bibliography are still indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases, and they can be easily browsed with a search function. Questions? Email margaretwebb@hsl.harvard.edu

The searchable delirium bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons.  The HELP team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!  Feel free to search by author, title, keywords. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics.

Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases.

You may base your search on as many search terms as you like. A search term can be a keyword, an author's name, all or part of an article's title, or any word or phrase that you might expect to find in an article's abstract. You may then indicate whether you would like to limit the search to one or more options.

The results are prioritized so that entries including all search terms will be listed first, but you can indicate whether to then sort by title (the default), by author, by journal name or by publication year.

You may further restrict to a topic category. Note: If you do not enter any search terms, the results will include all of the entries for the selected topic category.

More information about each entry on this page is available by moving the mouse over the green information symbols.

Please note that Pub Med Central (PMC) full text links are provided wherever available.  However, due to copyright restrictions, only abstracts can be provided for articles not available in PMC.

Total Results: 3263

  • Dealing with delirium. A common problem in hospitalized elderly patients. 1992 O'Brien ME. Postgraduate medicine, 91:4 (463-70)
    • Title

      Dealing with delirium. A common problem in hospitalized elderly patients.

    • Authors
      O'Brien ME
    • Year
      1992
    • Journal
      Postgraduate medicine
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Delirium is a common problem, particularly in hospitalized elderly patients. It may be the first indication of serious illness, such as infection, cardiopulmonary disease, or a metabolic disturbance. The condition is precipitated by medications, toxins, and abrupt changes in environment. Delirium is often a frightening experience for patients and families and a challenge to treat. As the elderly population increases, physicians may expect to encounter this condition more often. Maintaining a high index of suspicion may prevent many cases and arrest others at onset. Proper management includes prompt diagnosis and treatment of the underlying illness, as well as use of commonsense measures to calm and reassure the patient.
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirium in the medically ill elderly: operationalizing the DSM-III criteria. 1991 Gottlieb GL, Johnson J, Wanich C, Sullivan E. International psychogeriatrics / IPA, 3:2 (181-96)
    • Title

      Delirium in the medically ill elderly: operationalizing the DSM-III criteria.

    • Authors
      Gottlieb GL, Johnson J, Wanich C, Sullivan E
    • Year
      1991
    • Journal
      International psychogeriatrics / IPA
    • URL
    • Abstract
      This prospective study determined the incidence and prevalence of delirium in 235 consecutive subjects over age 70 admitted to a general medicine hospital service. The DSM-III criteria for delirium were operationalized. Using accepted screening procedures, patients were referred for evaluation by a psychiatrist who determined whether delirium was present by applying explicit operational definitions to each of the DSM-III criteria. Data on presence and severity of each of the DSM-III symptoms were recorded. Analysis of these data indicates that the DSM-III criteria describe a discrete, recognizable syndrome. However, some of the symptoms are more specific than others in identifying the syndrome in this population.
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirium. 1991 Henderson AS. International psychogeriatrics / IPA, 3:2 (349-51)
  • Epidemiology of delirium: an overview of research issues and findings. 1991 Levkoff S, Cleary P, Liptzin B, Evans DA. International psychogeriatrics / IPA, 3:2 (149-67)
    • Title

      Epidemiology of delirium: an overview of research issues and findings.

    • Authors
      Levkoff S, Cleary P, Liptzin B, Evans DA
    • Year
      1991
    • Journal
      International psychogeriatrics / IPA
    • URL
    • Abstract
      This paper provides a review of research issues and findings on the epidemiology of delirium. Despite the fact that research on this important geriatric syndrome has been conducted for many decades, several methodological issues make it difficult to compare findings across studies. In this paper we first discuss broadly methodological issues related to diagnosis, case-finding, and populations studied. We next review data on the occurrence and consequences of the syndrome. A discussion of the design and preliminary results of the Commonwealth-Harvard Study of Delirium in Elderly Hospitalized Patients documents both how we responded to the methodological issues outlined and how these choices influenced our findings. We conclude with a discussion of the needs for further research on the epidemiology of delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • An empirical study of diagnostic criteria for delirium. 1991 Liptzin B, Levkoff SE, Cleary PD, Pilgrim DM, Reilly CH, Albert M, Wetle TT. The American journal of psychiatry, 148:4 (454-7)
    • Title

      An empirical study of diagnostic criteria for delirium.

    • Authors
      Liptzin B, Levkoff SE, Cleary PD, Pilgrim DM, Reilly CH, Albert M, Wetle TT
    • Year
      1991
    • Journal
      The American journal of psychiatry
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The objective of this study was to determine empirically how many patients are identified as delirious or nondelirious according to DMS-III, DMS-III-R, and ICD-10 criteria.
    • PubMed ID
  • Cognitive impairment and hospital use. 1991 Weiler PG, Lubben JE, Chi I. American journal of public health, 81:9 (1153-7)
    • Title

      Cognitive impairment and hospital use.

    • Authors
      Weiler PG, Lubben JE, Chi I
    • Year
      1991
    • Journal
      American journal of public health
    • URL
    • Abstract
      An increasing number of older people are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease or another dementias. The resultant cognitive impairment has been well identified as one of the risk factors for nursing home placement but it has not been well studied as a risk for hospitalization.
    • PubMed ID
  • Advancing age and the syndrome of delirium: ancient conundrums and modern research advances. 1991 Miller NE, Lipowski ZJ. International psychogeriatrics / IPA, 3:2 (103-13)
    • Title

      Advancing age and the syndrome of delirium: ancient conundrums and modern research advances.

    • Authors
      Miller NE, Lipowski ZJ
    • Year
      1991
    • Journal
      International psychogeriatrics / IPA
    • URL
    • Abstract
    • PubMed ID
  • Delirium/acute confusional states: evaluation devices in nursing. 1991 Williams MA. International psychogeriatrics / IPA, 3:2 (301-8)
    • Title

      Delirium/acute confusional states: evaluation devices in nursing.

    • Authors
      Williams MA
    • Year
      1991
    • Journal
      International psychogeriatrics / IPA
    • URL
    • Abstract
      Characteristics of instruments developed by nurses for use in evaluating delirium/acute confusional states include relative emphasis on observable behavior and the need to impose low respondent burden. Two instruments that have been most used by nurse researchers are described: The Confusion Rating Scale and the NEECHAM Confusion Scale. The former is based on observable behavior; the latter incorporates vital function and oxygen saturation measurements that may serve as early warning signs of impending delirium.
    • PubMed ID
  • Cognitive impairment and length of hospital stay in older persons. 1990 Binder EF, Robins LN. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38:7 (759-66)
    • Title

      Cognitive impairment and length of hospital stay in older persons.

    • Authors
      Binder EF, Robins LN
    • Year
      1990
    • Journal
      Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • URL
    • Abstract
      We looked at performance on the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) as a predictor of hospitalization and length of stay in the coming year in community-dwelling older persons from the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area program. They had been assessed with the MMSE at the outset and were re-evaluated with the MMSE and a Health Services Questionnaire 1 year later. Subjects were more likely to be hospitalized in the subsequent year if they were older than 75 years or if they scored poorly on the MMSE. Severe cognitive impairment increased the risk more than mild impairment. Multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic variables demonstrate that MMSE performance is a significant predictor of any subsequent hospitalization (medical or psychiatric) among whites and among those at both high and low educational levels. This effect was not explained solely by the increased rate of psychiatric hospitalizations. We also determined that a decline in MMSE score over 1 year was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization, more hospital days, longer average length of stay, and a prolonged (greater than 20 days) hospital stay. We conclude that both initial poor performance on the MMSE and deterioration increase the risk of hospital use and lead to more extended hospital stays. However, even with poor MMSE performance, most older persons remain out of the hospital and most of those hospitalized do not have prolonged stays; thus, MMSE score alone is insufficient as a predictor of impending hospitalization. Further studies are needed to add other measures of risk for hospitalization and prolonged hospital stays.
    • PubMed ID
  • A prospective study of delirium in hospitalized elderly. 1990 Francis J, Martin D, Kapoor WN. JAMA, 263:8 (1097-101)
    • Title

      A prospective study of delirium in hospitalized elderly.

    • Authors
      Francis J, Martin D, Kapoor WN
    • Year
      1990
    • Journal
      JAMA
    • URL
    • Abstract
      The prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of delirium were studied in 229 elderly patients. Fifty patients (22%) met criteria for delirium; nondelirious elderly constituted the control group. Abnormal sodium levels, illness severity, dementia, fever or hypothermia, psychoactive drug use, and azotemia were associated with risk of delirium. Patients with three or more risk factors had a 60% rate of delirium. Delirious patients stayed 12.1 days in the hospital vs 7.2 days for controls and were more likely to die (8% vs 1%) or be institutionalized (16% vs 3%). Illness severity predicted 6-month mortality, but the effect of delirium was not significant. Delirium occurs commonly in hospitalized elderly, is associated with chronic and acute problems, and identifies elderly at risk for death, longer hospitalization, and institutionalization. The increased mortality associated with delirium appears to be explained by greater severity of illness.
    • PubMed ID
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